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Ketoacidosis versus hypoglycemia symptoms

Ketoacidosis versus hypoglycemia symptoms

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Ketoacidosis versus hypoglycemia symptoms -

Diabetic ketoacidosis DKA occurs when the body does not have enough insulin to allow glucose to enter the cells properly. The cells do not have enough glucose to use for energy, so, instead, the body breaks down fat for fuel. When this happens, the body produces substances known as ketones. High levels of ketones are toxic because they can raise the acidity levels of the blood.

Reasons why DKA might happen include :. Anyone with these symptoms should seek medical help as soon as possible, as DKA can become a medical emergency. People can buy testing kits for ketones and blood sugar levels online. People with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes are more prone to HHS, but people without diabetes — or a without diagnosis of diabetes — might experience it.

According to the AAFP , the following factors may increase the risk:. The person will require treatment in the hospital, which will include rehydration, the use of insulin, and any necessary treatment for an underlying cause.

As a result, a person with diabetes will have a higher chance of developing an infection. When a person has diabetes, any symptoms and complications of an infection may be more severe and possibly life-threatening.

Minor infections can spread to deeper tissue, possibly leading to sepsis and other potentially life-threatening complications. If a person experiences a fever, pain, and swelling in any part of their body, they should seek medical advice.

Poorly controlled diabetes, a history of infections, and having other health conditions all increase the risk of these complications. At this point, home treatment is unlikely to help, and delaying medical care could cause permanent damage or death.

If there are signs of an emergency, the person should go to the emergency room, or they or someone with them should call immediately. It is not always possible to prevent an emergency, but being able to recognize the signs can improve the chances of early treatment and a full recovery.

Following the treatment plan : Use medications as a doctor prescribes and keep in touch with the healthcare team. If a person cannot remember whether or not they took their last dose of drugs, they should ask a doctor before taking a further dose.

This can help to prevent hypoglycemia. Anyone who notices a change in their symptoms should see a doctor. Eating healthful, balanced, regular meals : People who use insulin or other medications that lower blood glucose should ask their doctor about what foods to eat, how much, and when, in order to maintain stable blood sugar levels.

Small, frequent meals are better than fewer larger meals. Limiting alcohol and sugary drinks : These drinks contain carbs, which can raise blood sugar and contribute to obesity. Alcohol consumption can also increase the risk of other health conditions. Prompt treatment can prevent minor problems from becoming more serious.

Exercising regularly : Exercise helps the body control blood sugar. It can also help with symptoms that often accompany diabetes, such as high blood pressure , obesity, and poor circulation.

No specific medication or procedure can stop a diabetic emergency once it occurs, but emergency planning can increase the chances of getting prompt help. Managing the condition through medication and a healthful lifestyle, ensuring that others know the person has diabetes, and learning as much as possible about diabetes and its complications can reduce the risk of an emergency arising.

People with diabetes may experience blood sugar spikes for various reasons. These spikes can sometimes lead to severe complications. Learn to prevent…. What are diabetic ulcers? Read on to learn more about this common diabetes complication, including causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention options.

What are the benefits of a foot massage for diabetic neuropathy? Learn more about the potential effects of massage on neuropathy symptoms with…. What symptoms might a person with diabetic neuropathy experience? So just something to keep an eye on. Now let's talk about DKA, which is diabetic ketoacidosis.

This is a life-threatening complication of diabetes that causes increased blood glucose levels as well as ketones in the blood and urine. It is definitely more common with Type 1 diabetics, and it has a rapid onset. So some of the risk factors associated with DKA include an infection or illness, as well as stress and untreated or undiagnosed Type 1 diabetes.

So often at the hospital, patients will show up with DKA at the emergency room and that is the first time that they find out that they have Type 1 diabetes.

In terms of the signs and symptoms, because the patient will have hyperglycemia, we're going to see the same signs and symptoms that I talked about in my previous video associated with hyperglycemia. So this includes the three Ps-- so polydipsia, polyphagia, polyurea, as well as weight loss, fruity breath odor, Kussmaul respirations, and dehydration.

Labs are going to be important to know how to differentiate DKA from HHS. So with DKA, blood glucose will be elevated over And you will have ketones in the urine as well as the blood.

That is different than HHS. HHS will actually have higher levels of blood glucose, often over And there will be no ketones in the urine or blood.

Also with DKA, we're going to see metabolic acidosis present in the patient, as well as hyperkalemia. And anytime we have an abnormality in potassium levels, either too high or too low, the patient is at risk for life-threatening dysrhythmias.

So when you see the word DKA, K is in the middle and that will help you to recall that you need to closely monitor the patient's potassium levels because they're going to be really high and that can definitely cause some life-threatening dysrhythmias, like I said.

Now moving on to HHS. HHS stands for hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state. With HHS, we have very high glucose levels as well as severe dehydration.

HHS has a more gradual onset and it is definitely more common with Type 2 diabetic patients. So if you look at the initials HHS, there are two Hs, which will hopefully remind you that HHS is more common with Type 2 diabetes.

Some of the causes and risk factors associated with this condition include older age, inadequate fluid intake, decreased kidney function, as well as infection and stress. Signs and symptoms of HHS will include the signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia, which we've talked about a lot, in addition to the signs and symptoms of dehydration, which may include hypotension, weak pulses, headache, and weakness.

In terms of the labs, blood glucose levels will be over , and there will be no ketones in the urine or blood and no metabolic acidosis present like we saw with DKA.

First of all, we're going to want to identify and treat any underlying cause of these complications.

So if the patient has an infection, we're going to want to treat that infection. We're going to want to check their blood glucose levels hourly. And our goal is to bring those levels under We're also going to closely monitor the patient's potassium [K] levels.

So when the patient first presents to the emergency room with DKA, their potassium levels are going to be very high. And we're going to want to give them calcium gluconate to help protect the heart from dysrhythmia. However, as we treat the patient with insulin, insulin helps to bring glucose from the bloodstream into the cells.

But it also brings potassium from the bloodstream into the cells. So over the course of treatment, the patient may end up with hypokalemia. And if that is the case, then we're going to want to replace their potassium as needed.

The last thing I want to touch on in this video are some of the chronic complications of diabetes. There's a lot of them. And left untreated and not managed, diabetes can really ravage the body and cause so many problems. So as a nurse, you need to really provide education to your patient on these risks.

So some of the complications associated with diabetes include cardiovascular disease, which can lead to a myocardial infarction as well as a stroke. It can cause nephropathy, so kidney damage, as well as retinopathy.

So damage to the eyes which can lead to blindness. It can cause gastroparesis which can lead to impaired digestion, as well as tooth decay, gum disease, and sexual dysfunction.

So there are so many reasons to really take diabetes seriously and manage it very closely to avoid these complications. That is it for the endocrine system.

So I know there's a lot of videos. There's so many important topics with the endocrine system. I appreciate you hanging in there with me. I hope you've learned a lot. Be sure to subscribe to our channel, like this video, and I will see you again on another video soon! Love your videos, Cathy. I am an endocrinology NP.

One thing nurses need to expect when patients have DKA is that the prescribing provider should be ordering basal insulin like glargine or detemir, or even NPH before the IV insulin is stopped, or patients can go back into DKA.

Thank you so much Kathy! I love your videos! To me , it so effective way to keep my knowledge and memories updating and easily memorize them as well. Free economy shipping on The Survival Kit OR The Comprehensive Collection!

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Cyprus EUR. Persistent hyperglycemia can cause a wide range of chronic complications that affect almost every system in your body.

When large blood vessels are affected, it can lead to:. Joseph Monks, who has diabetic retinopathy, creates and produces films for his production company Sight Unseen Pictures. He is also the first blind filmmaker to direct a feature film.

The lights went out for me in early as a result of diabetic retinopathy—the death of my retinas. Learn more about the wide range of artistic and cultural activities you can continue to pursue with low vision and blindness:.

Very high blood glucose levels can also lead to the acute, life-threatening conditions, diabetic ketoacidosis DKA or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome HHS , which require immediate medical attention. Diabetic Ketoacidosis DKA occurs most frequently in persons with type 1 diabetes.

Elevated ketones are Insulin resistance and insulin resistance awareness versue of DKA, which is a medical emergency and needs to be treated right away. Ketoadidosis ketoacidosis Ketlacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that can be life-threatening. DKA is most common among people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA. Instead, your liver breaks down fat for fuel, a process that produces acids called ketones. Blood sugar levels change Ginseng for cardiovascular health during the day. At this Insulin resistance and insulin resistance awareness, you need to Hypogglycemia action to Ketoavidosis it back up. Low blood sugar is especially common in people with type 1 diabetes. Knowing how to identify low blood sugar is important because it can be dangerous if left untreated. Read more about what causes low blood sugar and common symptoms.


Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) \u0026 Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome (HHS)

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