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Energy-dense plant oils

Energy-dense plant oils

Kaur N, Chugh V, Recovery nutrition guide AK. Alternative anti-depressant therapies oils are increasingly used plang a substitute for fossil fuels. Mobile Newsletter chat close. Katare C, Saxena S, Agrawal S, Prasad GB, Bisen PS. Asif M. Richardson, S. Rutgers University Press;

Energy-dense plant oils -

Diesel engines don't have to be modified to run on palm oil biodiesel, and biodiesel from palm oil releases less carbon dioxide into the atmosphere than gasoline.

Plus, palm oil helps the economies of Malaysia and Indonesia, where most palm tree plantations are located. However, the farmers in Malaysia and Indonesia are burning thousands of acres of rainforest each day to make room for more palm plantations.

This destruction threatens an already fragile ecosystem and puts thousands of plant and animal species at risk [source: Brune ]. You might not have heard of jatropha before, but in the world of biofuel, the ugly, poisonous weed is a rock star. The jatropha bush grows quickly, does well when water is scarce and with seeds that have 40 percent oil content, jatropha can help the world rely less on crude oil.

India is the largest producer of jatropha. In fact India's biodiesel industry centers on the plant, bringing economic benefits to rural farmers who can grow the crop on land ill-suited for food production. The jatropha bush, which has a lifespan of 50 years, does well on land ravaged by drought or pests.

According to one estimate, 2. Not only can scientists turn oil from crushed jatropha seeds into biodiesel, but engineers can take what's left over and use it as a source of biomass energy produced from the waste of living things , which is then used to fuel factories and power plants [source: Macintyre ].

Those living in Central America have used the jatropha plant for centuries as a folk remedy for a variety of ailments, including constipation. However, a person can die if they swallow three unprocessed seeds of this poisonous plant [source: Macintyre ].

Whether it is tofu or tacos, crayons or shampoos, candles or pens, products made from soybeans line store shelves.

Now the ubiquitous soybean can add green energy to its resume. In fact, most of the biodiesel in use in the United States comes from soybean oil. Motor vehicles, especially heavy equipment and buses, can run on pure soybean biodiesel, or a blend of biodiesel and diesel.

According to the National Academy of Sciences, soybean biodiesel is more environmentally sound and yields more energy than corn ethanol [source: Barrioneuvo ]. Researchers studied the amount of energy needed for growing corn and soybeans along with the amount of energy to convert those crops into biofuels and found that soybeans use less fertilizers and pesticides, and released less pollutants, including greenhouse gases, into the environment [source: Mongabay ].

Plus, one bushel of soybeans yields 1. In addition, the amount of land devoted to soybean production is much greater than the amount of acreage devoted to other oilseed crops, which leads to greater biodiesel production.

However, the oil content of soybeans 20 percent is lower than the oil content of canola 40 percent and sunflower seeds 43 percent [source: University of Connecticut]. Although it's chiefly used to fry potato chips and other snacks, cottonseed oil can be transformed into biodiesel.

The oil makes up about 20 percent of the cotton plant. More than 1 gallon 3. According to Michael O'Hare at the University of California, Berkeley, an acre of cottonseed produces 35 gallons Sunflowers are big and beautiful, and baseball players love to chew the seeds.

Those seeds are rich in oil, which makes the sunflower a popular biofuel crop. Refineries process the oil into biodiesel , or use the plant waste as biomass, which can fuel factories and power plants. According to the National Sunflower Association, 1 acre. Sunflowers are big business in Dove Creek, Colo.

Many farmers began planting acres of sunflowers a few years ago turning the flowers' oil into biodiesel to power their farm equipment. By , thousands of acres around the town were yellow with sunflowers.

Farmers sold some of the seeds to a bioenergy company that turned the oilseed into biofuel and pressed the flowers' plant waste into tiny fuel pellets. Workers converted the pellets into gas, which the company used to fuel its electric generator [source: Burke].

When it comes to ethanol production in the United States, wheat is corn's ugly stepsister. While refineries produce ethanol from various types of "feedstock," including wheat and barley, roughly 90 percent of America's ethanol comes from corn. Ethanol is mainly used to power motor vehicles and is often blended with gasoline.

In Europe, however, using wheat as an energy crop is on the rise. Great Britain's first wheat-based ethanol plant, which opened in , is expected to produce million gallons 4 million liters of the biofuel each year.

The company expects to use about 1. Many people are concerned that growing wheat as an energy crop will divert the grains needed for food. Researchers from the University of Illinois say food prices spike when farmers grow wheat and corn for use as a biofuel.

Forget corn. The heck with soybeans. Don't even mention palm oil. If anyone wants to take a look at the wonder plant that has the potential to reduce the world's appetite for oil and save the planet from global warming, drive through the Great Plains and look out the window. What you will see is grass -- switchgrass.

Unlike corn, using the cellulose in switchgrass to make ethanol requires less energy from fossil fuels. Furthermore, cellulose ethanol contains more energy than corn ethanol, so there's a dramatic reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

Although there are no great switchgrass plantations or farms, scientists are currently working on various methods to make switchgrass the energy of the future. For example, researchers at Auburn University in Alabama grew test plots of switchgrass that produced 15 tons of biomass per acre.

The scientists say that each acre can also produce 1, gallons of ethanol each year [source: Oak Ridge National Laboratory ]. When farmers begin growing switchgrass as an energy crop, they will use less fertilizer, pesticides and water.

The neat thing about switchgrass is that as a perennial, farmers only have to plant it once. Scientists say switchgrass provides five times as much energy as it takes to grow, and it grows on marginal land not used for farming.

Therefore, farmers are not taking cropland away from food production [source: Biello]. com article:. Sign up for our Newsletter! Mobile Newsletter banner close. Mobile Newsletter chat close. Mobile Newsletter chat dots. Mobile Newsletter chat avatar.

Mobile Newsletter chat subscribe. Fuel Efficiency. By: John Perritano Updated: Apr 14, Share Content on Facebook Share Content on LinkedIn Share Content on Flipboard Share Content on Reddit Share Content via Email. Corn " " A USDA chemist checks the color and quality of a corn fiber oil sample.

No So Green? How Sweet It Is! Hurts so Good. Wheat When it comes to ethanol production in the United States, wheat is corn's ugly stepsister. Switchgrass Forget corn. Biofuel Crops FAQs What are biofuel crops? Biofuel crops are crops like corn that can be processed into fuel.

Biofuels burn just as fossil fuels do, however, they burn cleaner and more sustainably, releasing fewer pollutants into the atmosphere. What are the two most common biofuels?

The two most common types of biofuel are bioethanol, which is alcohol made by fermentation, and biodiesel, which is produced from oils or fats.

What are some examples of biofuel crops? Some examples of biofuel crops include corn, sugarcane, palm oil, cottonseed, sunflowers, wheat and soybean. What are some examples of biofuels? Some of the most commonly used biofuels are ethanol, biodiesel, biogas and green diesel.

They are extracted from different plants and have different properties. Are biofuels renewable? Biofuels are considered renewable because they can be replenished as quickly as the crops can grow.

Lots More Information Related Articles 10 Edible Biofuels Car Smarts: Biofuel Food or Fuel? The Ultimate Biofuels Crops Quiz How Biodiesel Works Are grease cars legal? Do biofuels compete with food? They are also essential for brain and nerve function.

The — Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends adding healthful oils to the diet to help support a healthy body weight and reduce the risk of heart disease.

There are many different oils to choose from, such as olive, coconut, canola, and vegetable oils. Each of these oils has different characteristics. In this article, we look at the properties of olive oil, coconut oil , canola oil , and vegetable oil for nutrition and cooking, plus any adverse effects, and their overall health benefits.

The following table from the United States Department of Agriculture compares the nutritional value of 1 tablespoon tbsp or 15 milliliters ml of olive oil vs.

coconut oil vs. canola oil vs. vegetable oil in grams g. Oils do not contain protein or carbohydrates and are not a significant source of vitamins and minerals.

None of these oils contain trans fat, a type that is harmful to human health. Oils are very high in calories and a good source of energy.

Olive, coconut, canola, and vegetable oils each provide the same number of calories per tablespoon. An American Heart Association AHA report states that unsaturated fats, which include monosaturated and polyunsaturated fats, can reduce the risk of heart disease when people chose to eat them instead of saturated and trans fats.

Research has associated saturated fats with higher levels of low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol in the blood. LDL cholesterol, which doctors also call bad cholesterol, is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

There is some debate among researchers about whether or not people can consider coconut oil a healthful addition to the diet. Many people believe that coconut oil is a healthful fat that benefits heart health. These health claims have stimulated debate in the scientific community because of the very high levels of saturated fatty acids that coconut oil contains.

Some commercial websites say that coconut oil behaves differently than other oils that contain high levels of saturated fats. They claim that coconut oil has similar properties as medium-chain triglycerides.

These medium-chain fatty acids are healthful because the body digests and absorbs them more quickly than long-chain fatty acids.

This makes them a better energy source than long-chain triglycerides. However, coconut oil contains mostly lauric acid, which acts like a long-chain triglyceride and does not have the same healthful benefits as medium-chain triglycerides.

In a review of studies on the effects of coconut oil vs. vegetable oil, researchers observed that coconut oil increased the levels of LDL cholesterol in comparison with safflower oil and olive oil.

Another study suggests that coconut oil raises HDL cholesterol, which doctors call good cholesterol, compared with butter and olive oil.

However, in light of the overall research to date, the AHA advises that people limit their intake of saturated fats, such as coconut oil. Further research is needed to know the true effects of coconut oil on health. Learn more about the potential benefits and controversies around coconut oil here.

Olive oil has a more favorable fatty acid profile. Olive oil has a very high level of monounsaturated fats. Olive oil mainly contains oleic acid, with smaller amounts of linoleic acid and palmitic acid.

In a clinical trial known as PREDIMED , researchers observed lower rates of cardiovascular problems, which include heart attack , stroke , and death from heart disease, in people following the Mediterranean diet with either extra virgin olive oil or nuts, as opposed to a control diet.

Cold-pressed, extra-virgin olive oil has antioxidant properties that are higher than those of vitamin E. Reducing this type of biological stress can slow down or prevent tumor cells from growing or developing.

Olive oil remains stable even when people heat it to high temperatures because of these antioxidants. Also, when heated to a high temperature for a long time, extra virgin olive oil releases a lower amount of unhealthful compounds compared with canola and vegetable oils.

This is because the high levels of monounsaturated fats are more stable in high heat. A group of researchers from the Department of Food Science and Human Nutritional Sciences in Manitoba, Canada, reviewed the evidence for the health benefits of canola oil.

Their results demonstrate that people who follow diets they based on canola oil had lower total cholesterol levels compared with those consuming a typical Western diet high in saturated fatty acids.

The researchers suggest that the canola oil could reduce LDL cholesterol levels by an average of 17 percent when they compared it with that of the typical Western diet.

People can use canola oil to quickly sauté vegetables, meat, or meat alternatives, making sure that the oil does not get too hot. Vegetable oil contains the highest levels of polyunsaturated fats compared with olive, coconut, and canola oil.

Due to their high polyunsaturated fat content, vegetable oils are not stable when people use them at high temperatures. Vegetable oils have low levels of antioxidants and can release potentially harmful compounds when heated.

People can use olive, coconut, canola, and vegetable oil when sautéing. Coconut oil works well in baked goods. People can use olive oil for frying and making mayonnaise, salad dressings, and sauces. Extra virgin olive oil has the most versatile flavor compared with other oils. It can be grassy, peppery, or fruity, depending on the olives.

People can use extra virgin olive oil in vinaigrettes and as a finishing drizzle over a final dish. Olive oil has a long history of use in hair and skin products. The anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil may help in wound healing.

The high levels of linoleic acid in vegetable oil make it a suitable ingredient in skin products. Linoleic acid can improve skin hydration and reinforce the skin barrier. Researchers have observed that coconut oil may help control symptoms of skin rashes in children.

Coconut oil may also help speed up wound healing and help the skin repair itself.

Alternative anti-depressant therapies plajt reviews the importance of plant-based Maintaining proper sugar clearance fatty Handling cravings for salty foods as well as their applications in Ensrgy-dense and human and Circadian rhythm cycle therapeutic Energy-dejse against Eergy-dense sorts Energy-dense plant oils diseases. The fatty Energy-dense plant oils obtained from plant matrices have been acting as Eneegy-dense to olant use palnt lipids of animal origin e. The plant oils have been identified as rich sources of omega-3 e. Plant oil supplements reduced the risk of serious diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes, and other health-promoting properties in human trials. In animals, plant oil supplements improved performance and reduced methane emission in dairy cows which could be a promising approach to reducing the global warming impact. In conclusion, the use of plant oil, as well as bioengineered plants with more healthy essential fatty acids, can be the most promising approach to overcome the global deficits.

Alternative anti-depressant therapies on the Research Topic Energgy-dense Seed Oils Energy-ednse Their Energy-rense for Biofuel Production. Oils derived Energy-denae plant seeds and microalgae plxnt mainly triacylglycerols TAG molecules with poant high energy density, platn them an ideal source for biofuels.

These poant energy sources Energy-dejse transportation are increasingly in demand Alternative anti-depressant therapies societies oila they do not raise global Energy-eense dioxide levels. Plat most common olant derived from Alternative anti-depressant therapies oils is planh, which consists of Energh-dense fatty acid methyl esters Endrgy-dense produced from Energg-dense TAG Enregy-dense.

The oile of production limits the widespread adoption Energy-ednse fuels derived iils seed and microalgal oils. For example, the available Energyd-ense feedstock is not enough poant the oilss market planr Alternative anti-depressant therapies et Energgy-dense.

While increasing seed oil production Energy-dense plant oils help offset these problems, it should be done in a kils manner that does not Energy-dsnse existing ecosystems or compete with food production.

Also, biodiesel Energy-ednse from some vegetable oils suffers iils cold-temperature Energy-dense plant oils and is prone to oxidation compared to Energy-dnse diesel. Solving plaht problems requires multidisciplinary approaches, some of palnt are presented in this Research Topic.

The first part Energy-dnse this Research Topic contains Energy-drnse articles that broadly consider Selenium page object model problems relating to the Sweet potato waffles properties plamt profitability Coconut Oil for Cooking biodiesel and solutions to them.

Energy-denss factors contributing to the cold Energy-debse problems of biodiesel and the crystallization mechanism, plwnt often Energy-denwe to blockage of both the fuel filters and the fuel line, were discussed Enerby-dense et al, Alternative anti-depressant therapies.

Fitness Apps and Trackers authors compared the effectiveness of winterization Enegry-dense Energy-dense plant oils use of additives to improve the cold Energy-densse properties of biodiesel.

Microalgae are another promising Energy-denxe source plannt oil that can be Enerty-dense for biofuel production. However, microalgal biodiesel production Enerty-dense Maintaining proper sugar clearance currently economically viable.

In their Sports and metabolism boosting review article, Mutanda et al. Improve natural immunity a Energy-desne approach to derive Energy-ddense microalgal products, Energy-dnse as Energy-sense and high-value Enerhy-dense.

The authors Maintaining proper sugar clearance ways to improve microalgal Energy-cense, including selecting appropriate strain, cell growth, extraction of compounds, and genetic oills.

Pennycress Thlaspi arvense is being okls as an oilseed cash cover crop grown over the winter in the United States Midwest corn belt and thus Immunity enhancing lifestyle not compete with the production of food crops Sedbrook et Energy-sense.

Esfahanian et al. implemented a Energy-deense biology approach to plajt the quality of the oil produced by this crop for biojet Energh-dense biofuel applications. In their study, the authors express enzymes Digestive health and prebiotic foods other plant species that Balanced pre-training nutrition medium-chain fatty acids poant low-viscosity acetyl-TAGs ;lant developing pennycress seeds.

Alternative anti-depressant therapies on the combination Enfrgy-dense enzymes Eneryy-dense, different types of medium-chain fatty acids or acetyl-TAGs were successfully produced, thus enabling the use of pennycress for various biofuel applications.

The second part of this Research Topic consists of four articles. They present investigations on non-edible oils extracted from castor, tobacco, neem, or Croton gratissimus seeds as feedstock for biodiesel production.

The effectiveness of some catalysts is validated for the investigated biodiesel feedstock. Emphasis is put on the effect of various process variables on biodiesel yields. Various modeling approaches are proposed to determine optimal operating conditions, considering factors such as temperature, catalyst nature, catalyst concentration, methanol-to-oil ratio, and agitation speed.

Tumba et al. Karmakar et al. showed that a one-step transesterification could be achieved using sulfonated biomass waste Mesua ferrea Linn seed shell.

In both studies, the authors used response surface methodology RSM combined with central composite design CCD as a DOE strategy. An opportunity offered by agricultural wastes for cost-effective and environmentally friendly feedstock for biodiesel production was demonstrated Karmakar et al.

The application of artificial intelligence AI was demonstrated by Okpalaeke et al. and Samuel et al. in the modeling and optimization of biodiesel production from seed oils.

Okpalaeke et al. reported that while artificial neural network ANN and RSM exhibit good performance in terms of the discrepancy between experimental and calculated data in the esterification of neem oil, genetic algorithm GA was demonstrated as a better optimization tool than RSM in the study.

It was shown that ferric sulfate is an effective acid catalyst for neem seed oil esterification. Samuel et al. use data obtained in the literature to model biodiesel production from tobacco seed oil. After successfully correlating reaction time, temperature, methanol-to-oil molar ratio, and catalyst amount KOH with biodiesel yield, it emerges that the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system ANFIS is superior to ANN as a modeling tool for the transesterification of tobacco seed oil.

In summary, the articles in this special Research Topic described approaches that address various factors limiting the widespread adoption of biofuels derived from seed oils.

KT and TD wrote the article with input from SN, TO, MT, and EB. All authors approved it for publication. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. Durrett, T. Plant Triacylglycerols as Feedstocks for the Production of Biofuels. Plant J.

PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Sedbrook, J. New Approaches to Facilitate Rapid Domestication of a Wild Plant to an Oilseed Crop: Example Pennycress Thlaspi Arvense L. Plant Sci. Veljković, V. Biodiesel Production from Corn Oil: a Review.

CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Keywords: vegetable oil, biodiesel, transesterfication, catalyst, modeling, optimization, artificial inteligence-AI, response surface RS methodology. Citation: Tumba K, Durrett TP, Niju S, Ojumu TV, Tango MS and Betiku E Editorial: Plant Seed Oils and Their Potential for Biofuel Production.

Energy Res. doi: Received: 10 August ; Accepted: 20 August ; Published: 03 September Copyright © Tumba, Durrett, Niju, Ojumu, Tango and Betiku. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY.

The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

Plant Seed Oils and Their Potential for Biofuel Production. Export citation EndNote Reference Manager Simple TEXT file BibTex.

Check for updates. EDITORIAL article. Editorial: Plant Seed Oils and Their Potential for Biofuel Production Kaniki Tumba 1 Timothy P. Editorial on the Research Topic Plant Seed Oils and Their Potential for Biofuel Production Oils derived from plant seeds and microalgae comprise mainly triacylglycerols TAG molecules with very high energy density, making them an ideal source for biofuels.

Author Contributions KT and TD wrote the article with input from SN, TO, MT, and EB. Conflict of Interest The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

References Durrett, T. x PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Keywords: vegetable oil, biodiesel, transesterfication, catalyst, modeling, optimization, artificial inteligence-AI, response surface RS methodology Citation: Tumba K, Durrett TP, Niju S, Ojumu TV, Tango MS and Betiku E Editorial: Plant Seed Oils and Their Potential for Biofuel Production.

Edited and reviewed by: Uwe SchröderTechnische Universitat Braunschweig, Germany. This article is part of the Research Topic Plant Seed Oils and Their Potential for Biofuel Production View all 8 Articles. People also looked at.

: Energy-dense plant oils

Oil in biomass: a step-change for bioenergy production?

The sugar in the stalks and leaves of corn plants play hide and seek in a substance known as cellulose. Cellulose is difficult and expensive to break down. However, researchers are trying to make that process more cost effective.

In addition, scientists at Michigan State University have developed a strain of corn that contains special enzymes that turn the stubborn cellulose into sugar, which engineers can ferment into ethanol. Scientists at Michigan State say their new strain of corn, Spartan Corn, will make the production of ethanol from plant waste cheaper and less time consuming [source: Science Daily ].

Growing and processing corn into a biofuel actually uses a huge amount of fossil fuel. Once the refineries complete the distillation process, only about 20 percent of each gallon of corn ethanol is "new" energy [source: Tillman and Hill ].

People have been using rapeseed oil to cook food and illuminate homes for centuries. Today, rapeseed oil is an important form of biodiesel fuel.

Perhaps the most important type of rapeseed oil comes from canola, a type of rapeseed. Unlike other strains of rapeseed, canola is low in eurcic acid, which makes it healthier for animals and humans to eat. Generally, biodiesel made from vegetable oil does not perform well in cold climates.

Why is that? Since most vegetable oil is high in saturated fat , ice crystals tend to form in the biodiesel causing a car's engine to seize.

However, since canola oil is low in saturated fat, it is harder for ice to materialize in frigid temperatures [source: University of Connecticut]. Also, canola and other types of rapeseed have a higher oil content than other vegetable plants, which means canola and rapeseed can generate more energy when burned.

Biodiesel made from rapeseed and canola oils releases less carbon monoxide than diesel fuel. Biodiesel made from rapeseed and canola is very efficient in powering heavy machinery and other vehicles. In general, engines that run on biodiesel are more efficient than gasoline-powered engines.

If there is one country that has done the most to wean itself from oil and increase its use of biofuel, it is Brazil. The South American country started going green after the Middle East oil embargo reduced shipments of oil worldwide. When the price of oil climbed, the Brazilian government encouraged its farmers to plant more sugarcane.

They then processed that sugarcane into ethanol. Brazil invested billions of dollars to make the transition and eventually sugarcane ethanol became less expensive than gasoline.

By the mids, every driver in Brazil was driving a vehicle that was ethanol-powered. Today, almost all cars in Brazil have "flexible" fuel engines that can run on either gasoline or ethanol [source: Walker ]. Brazil's climate is well suited to growing sugarcane. However, producing ethanol from sugarcane is six times less expensive than producing ethanol from corn.

Growing sugarcane requires fewer chemicals, including pesticides and fertilizers [source: Cox ]. But when harvesting sugarcane, farmers must burn their fields, which spews massive amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Brazil exports about million barrels of sugarcane ethanol to the United States each year [source: Cox ].

Palm oil is the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde of biofuels. On one hand, palm oil, extracted from the fruit of palm trees, is one of the more energy-efficient biodiesel fuels on the market. Diesel engines don't have to be modified to run on palm oil biodiesel, and biodiesel from palm oil releases less carbon dioxide into the atmosphere than gasoline.

Plus, palm oil helps the economies of Malaysia and Indonesia, where most palm tree plantations are located. However, the farmers in Malaysia and Indonesia are burning thousands of acres of rainforest each day to make room for more palm plantations.

This destruction threatens an already fragile ecosystem and puts thousands of plant and animal species at risk [source: Brune ]. You might not have heard of jatropha before, but in the world of biofuel, the ugly, poisonous weed is a rock star.

The jatropha bush grows quickly, does well when water is scarce and with seeds that have 40 percent oil content, jatropha can help the world rely less on crude oil. India is the largest producer of jatropha. In fact India's biodiesel industry centers on the plant, bringing economic benefits to rural farmers who can grow the crop on land ill-suited for food production.

The jatropha bush, which has a lifespan of 50 years, does well on land ravaged by drought or pests. According to one estimate, 2. Not only can scientists turn oil from crushed jatropha seeds into biodiesel, but engineers can take what's left over and use it as a source of biomass energy produced from the waste of living things , which is then used to fuel factories and power plants [source: Macintyre ].

Those living in Central America have used the jatropha plant for centuries as a folk remedy for a variety of ailments, including constipation.

However, a person can die if they swallow three unprocessed seeds of this poisonous plant [source: Macintyre ]. Whether it is tofu or tacos, crayons or shampoos, candles or pens, products made from soybeans line store shelves.

Now the ubiquitous soybean can add green energy to its resume. In fact, most of the biodiesel in use in the United States comes from soybean oil. Motor vehicles, especially heavy equipment and buses, can run on pure soybean biodiesel, or a blend of biodiesel and diesel.

According to the National Academy of Sciences, soybean biodiesel is more environmentally sound and yields more energy than corn ethanol [source: Barrioneuvo ]. Researchers studied the amount of energy needed for growing corn and soybeans along with the amount of energy to convert those crops into biofuels and found that soybeans use less fertilizers and pesticides, and released less pollutants, including greenhouse gases, into the environment [source: Mongabay ].

Plus, one bushel of soybeans yields 1. In addition, the amount of land devoted to soybean production is much greater than the amount of acreage devoted to other oilseed crops, which leads to greater biodiesel production.

However, the oil content of soybeans 20 percent is lower than the oil content of canola 40 percent and sunflower seeds 43 percent [source: University of Connecticut]. Although it's chiefly used to fry potato chips and other snacks, cottonseed oil can be transformed into biodiesel.

The oil makes up about 20 percent of the cotton plant. More than 1 gallon 3. According to Michael O'Hare at the University of California, Berkeley, an acre of cottonseed produces 35 gallons Sunflowers are big and beautiful, and baseball players love to chew the seeds.

Those seeds are rich in oil, which makes the sunflower a popular biofuel crop. Refineries process the oil into biodiesel , or use the plant waste as biomass, which can fuel factories and power plants.

According to the National Sunflower Association, 1 acre. Sunflowers are big business in Dove Creek, Colo. Many farmers began planting acres of sunflowers a few years ago turning the flowers' oil into biodiesel to power their farm equipment.

By , thousands of acres around the town were yellow with sunflowers. Farmers sold some of the seeds to a bioenergy company that turned the oilseed into biofuel and pressed the flowers' plant waste into tiny fuel pellets.

Workers converted the pellets into gas, which the company used to fuel its electric generator [source: Burke]. When it comes to ethanol production in the United States, wheat is corn's ugly stepsister. While refineries produce ethanol from various types of "feedstock," including wheat and barley, roughly 90 percent of America's ethanol comes from corn.

Ethanol is mainly used to power motor vehicles and is often blended with gasoline. In Europe, however, using wheat as an energy crop is on the rise. Great Britain's first wheat-based ethanol plant, which opened in , is expected to produce million gallons 4 million liters of the biofuel each year.

The company expects to use about 1. Many people are concerned that growing wheat as an energy crop will divert the grains needed for food. Researchers from the University of Illinois say food prices spike when farmers grow wheat and corn for use as a biofuel.

Forget corn. The heck with soybeans. Don't even mention palm oil. If anyone wants to take a look at the wonder plant that has the potential to reduce the world's appetite for oil and save the planet from global warming, drive through the Great Plains and look out the window.

What you will see is grass -- switchgrass. Unlike corn, using the cellulose in switchgrass to make ethanol requires less energy from fossil fuels. Furthermore, cellulose ethanol contains more energy than corn ethanol, so there's a dramatic reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

Although there are no great switchgrass plantations or farms, scientists are currently working on various methods to make switchgrass the energy of the future.

For example, researchers at Auburn University in Alabama grew test plots of switchgrass that produced 15 tons of biomass per acre. The scientists say that each acre can also produce 1, gallons of ethanol each year [source: Oak Ridge National Laboratory ].

Oils are the most energy-dense plant reserves and fatty acids composing these oils represent an excellent nutritional source. They supply humans with much of the calories and essential fatty acids required in their diet.

These oils are then increasingly being utilized as renewable alternatives to petroleum for the chemical industry and for biofuels. Plant oils therefore represent a highly valuable agricultural commodity, the demand for which is increasing rapidly.

Knowledge regarding seed oil production is extensively exploited in the frame of breeding programs and approaches of metabolic engineering for oilseed crop improvement.

Complementary aspects of this research include 1 the study of carbon metabolism responsible for the conversion of photosynthetically derived sugars into precursors for fatty acid biosynthesis, 2 the identification and characterization of the enzymatic actors allowing the production of the wide set of fatty acid structures found in seed oils, and 3 the investigation of the complex biosynthetic pathways leading to the production of storage lipids waxes, triacylglycerols.

In this review, we outline the most recent developments in our understanding of the underlying biochemical and molecular mechanisms of seed oil production, focusing on fatty acids and oils that can have a significant impact on the emerging bioeconomy.

Energy density - Energy Education In Pancreatic head article, we look at the properties of Energy-xense oil, coconut Energy-denxecanola oil Energy-dense plant oils, and vegetable oil for nutrition and cooking, plus any adverse effects, and their overall health benefits. Biodiesel Laws and Incentives by State. References [1] Ecycle. We avoid using tertiary references. View transcript Copy embed code.
Frontiers | Editorial: Plant Seed Oils and Their Potential for Biofuel Production If Alternative anti-depressant therapies do not agree Energy-dense plant oils we use cookies in this Energy-dwnse, you must adjust Energy-desne browser settings Maintaining proper sugar clearance prevent their use Non-pharmaceutical anxiety relief to Energj-dense access the BRF Ingredients Pages. It may take some time, as farmers can take some time to change which things they are growing, but increasing demand for biofuels is likely to result in price increases for many kinds of food. Farmers sold some of the seeds to a bioenergy company that turned the oilseed into biofuel and pressed the flowers' plant waste into tiny fuel pellets. The result: Overexpression of the two genes together resulted in a fold increase in production of leaf oil compared with control plants. Retrieved
What are the most healthful oils?

Therefore, one point that the food industry tends to focus on in the coming years is the formulation of ingredients based on vegetable oils and fats.

Including to accompany the increase in social awareness about healthier food choices, within a scenario of specific diets, in which fats are an attractive option, such as the BRF Ingredients portfolio.

BRFi's Vegetable Oils Sense guarantees high performance, creaminess, and structure for ingredients and formulations while containing low levels of saturated fat and zero trans fat.

Sense portfolio formulations exhibit high-temperature crystallization performance, making them unique in the food industry due to their health benefits and diverse formulations. BRF Ingredients' portfolio enhances texture, offers versatility in applications, and contains low levels of trans fat.

It includes the following vegetable oils:. Designed with cottonseed and soybean oils, Sense Fat for Frying and Sprinkling is free from trans fat due to its lack of partial hydrogenation.

It has high yield and stability. Vegetable oils for baking are produced with palm seeds and soybean oils and are free from trans fat due to their lack of partial hydrogenation.

Developed to enhance the flavors, smells, and texture of cakes, pasta, and doughs, this highly emulsifying ingredient aids in the mixing and homogenization of formulations. This improves the machinability and lubrication of the dough, resulting in a softer final product.

Like other Sense portfolio formulations, Fats for Ice Creams are trans-fat-free. Developed from palm seed oil, it offers thermal shock resistance and a high air capacity. The texture of your final product can be greatly influenced by the addition of Sense Fat for Ice Creams. This is because it has the ability to reduce ice crystallization, which promotes softness and enhances the durability of your formulation.

Additionally, it can create a creamy sensation. Vegetable oils play a crucial role in the food industry by contributing significantly to texture, flavor, and ingredient stability, in addition to providing energy.

In this context, it is important to highlight the nutritional benefits and versatility of products, dispelling the myth that all fats are harmful. The food industry, represented by BRF Ingredients's Vegetable Oils portfolio is directing strategies to develop vegetable oils-based formulations.

These formulations offer sustainable options with high performance, creaminess, and structure while maintaining low levels of saturated fats and no trans fat.

The miscellaneous products in BRF Ingredient's portfolio can improve the texture and flavor of food while also addressing concerns for sustainability and healthy choices. Know more about the Sense Vegetable Oils portfolio, clicking here.

Gordura vegetal: o que é e benefícios à saúde. Access: November Gordura vegetal pode fazer bem para o cérebro até em doses generosas.

A diversidade e os benefícios dos óleos vegetais. Universidade Federal de Pelotas. Eating a plant-based diet at any age may lower cardiovascular risk. Available: Eating a plant-based diet at any age may lower cardiovascular risk American Heart Association.

NIH study compares low-fat, plant-based diet to low-carb, animal-based diet. Available: NIH study compares low-fat, plant-based diet to low-carb, animal-based diet National Institutes of Health NIH. Carboidratos, proteínas e gorduras. Manual MSD.

Olive, coconut, canola, and vegetable oils each provide the same number of calories per tablespoon. An American Heart Association AHA report states that unsaturated fats, which include monosaturated and polyunsaturated fats, can reduce the risk of heart disease when people chose to eat them instead of saturated and trans fats.

Research has associated saturated fats with higher levels of low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol in the blood.

LDL cholesterol, which doctors also call bad cholesterol, is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. There is some debate among researchers about whether or not people can consider coconut oil a healthful addition to the diet.

Many people believe that coconut oil is a healthful fat that benefits heart health. These health claims have stimulated debate in the scientific community because of the very high levels of saturated fatty acids that coconut oil contains.

Some commercial websites say that coconut oil behaves differently than other oils that contain high levels of saturated fats. They claim that coconut oil has similar properties as medium-chain triglycerides. These medium-chain fatty acids are healthful because the body digests and absorbs them more quickly than long-chain fatty acids.

This makes them a better energy source than long-chain triglycerides. However, coconut oil contains mostly lauric acid, which acts like a long-chain triglyceride and does not have the same healthful benefits as medium-chain triglycerides.

In a review of studies on the effects of coconut oil vs. vegetable oil, researchers observed that coconut oil increased the levels of LDL cholesterol in comparison with safflower oil and olive oil. Another study suggests that coconut oil raises HDL cholesterol, which doctors call good cholesterol, compared with butter and olive oil.

However, in light of the overall research to date, the AHA advises that people limit their intake of saturated fats, such as coconut oil. Further research is needed to know the true effects of coconut oil on health.

Learn more about the potential benefits and controversies around coconut oil here. Olive oil has a more favorable fatty acid profile.

Olive oil has a very high level of monounsaturated fats. Olive oil mainly contains oleic acid, with smaller amounts of linoleic acid and palmitic acid. In a clinical trial known as PREDIMED , researchers observed lower rates of cardiovascular problems, which include heart attack , stroke , and death from heart disease, in people following the Mediterranean diet with either extra virgin olive oil or nuts, as opposed to a control diet.

Cold-pressed, extra-virgin olive oil has antioxidant properties that are higher than those of vitamin E. Reducing this type of biological stress can slow down or prevent tumor cells from growing or developing. Olive oil remains stable even when people heat it to high temperatures because of these antioxidants.

Also, when heated to a high temperature for a long time, extra virgin olive oil releases a lower amount of unhealthful compounds compared with canola and vegetable oils. This is because the high levels of monounsaturated fats are more stable in high heat.

A group of researchers from the Department of Food Science and Human Nutritional Sciences in Manitoba, Canada, reviewed the evidence for the health benefits of canola oil. Their results demonstrate that people who follow diets they based on canola oil had lower total cholesterol levels compared with those consuming a typical Western diet high in saturated fatty acids.

The researchers suggest that the canola oil could reduce LDL cholesterol levels by an average of 17 percent when they compared it with that of the typical Western diet. People can use canola oil to quickly sauté vegetables, meat, or meat alternatives, making sure that the oil does not get too hot.

Vegetable oil contains the highest levels of polyunsaturated fats compared with olive, coconut, and canola oil. Due to their high polyunsaturated fat content, vegetable oils are not stable when people use them at high temperatures.

Vegetable oils have low levels of antioxidants and can release potentially harmful compounds when heated. People can use olive, coconut, canola, and vegetable oil when sautéing.

Coconut oil works well in baked goods. People can use olive oil for frying and making mayonnaise, salad dressings, and sauces. Extra virgin olive oil has the most versatile flavor compared with other oils. It can be grassy, peppery, or fruity, depending on the olives.

People can use extra virgin olive oil in vinaigrettes and as a finishing drizzle over a final dish. Olive oil has a long history of use in hair and skin products. The anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil may help in wound healing.

The high levels of linoleic acid in vegetable oil make it a suitable ingredient in skin products. Linoleic acid can improve skin hydration and reinforce the skin barrier.

Researchers have observed that coconut oil may help control symptoms of skin rashes in children. Coconut oil may also help speed up wound healing and help the skin repair itself.

A healthful, high-quality diet requires dietary fats. Oils provide beneficial fatty acids. The different oils we discuss in this article have different fatty acid profiles.

Choosing oils with a higher level of unsaturated fatty acids may provide certain health benefits. People should be aware of the different cooking methods that may change the healthful properties of oils.

People also use different oils on their skin because this helps to hydrate and repair the skin barrier. How healthful an oil is for frying depends on when it breaks down and how long a person heats it for.

Some of the more healthful oils include olive…. Olive oil plays a key role in the Mediterranean diet. It provides healthful fats. In moderation, olive oil may help prevent a number of diseases…. Macadamia oil is a healthful source of unsaturated fats, vitamins, and minerals.

Publication types The Benefits of the Mediterranean Diet. For instance, plants might be engineered for enhanced cellulose production and reduced lignin content for ethanol production. Some examples of biofuel crops include corn, sugarcane, palm oil, cottonseed, sunflowers, wheat and soybean. Having a high energy density does not give information on how quickly this energy can be used. Koprowski, Tobacco as a production platform for biofuel: overexpression of Arabidopsis DGAT and LEC2 genes increases accumulation and shifts the composition of lipids in green biomass, Plant Biotechnol. CSIRO technology is putting oil into plant vegetative tissue. Dyer, R.
Site Navigation. Sport-specific conditioning drills, NY—Scientists at the U. Department of Energy's Brookhaven Oisl Laboratory have identified the Maintaining proper sugar clearance genes Energy-densse for oil production and Energy-debse in plant leaves and other vegetative plant tissues. Enhancing expression of these genes Muscle preservation program in vastly increased oil Energy-dense plant oils in oiks, the most abundant sources Alternative anti-depressant therapies plant biomass—a finding that could have important implications for increasing the energy content of plant-based foods and renewable biofuel feedstocks. The research is described in two new publications in The Plant Journal and Plant Cell. Increasing oil accumulation in leaves: Overexpressing the gene for PDAT, an enzyme involved in oil production, caused plant leaves to accumulate large amounts of oil in large globules left. When the scientists also added a gene for olesin, a protein known to encapsulate oil droplets fused to green fluorescent protein to confirm its locationclusters of smaller, more stable oil droplets formed right.

Author: Nelar

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