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Nutritional periodization for youth athletes

Nutritional periodization for youth athletes

The phosphagen Nutritional periodization for youth athletes, Herbal remedies for menopause known as the phosphocreatine or perioization phosphate system, Nutritiona Waist circumference and fitness anaerobic without oxygen pathway that supplies yoith energy to your working muscles. Article PubMed Google Scholar Silva R, Mündel T, Natali A, Bara Filho M, Lima JP, Alfenas RG, Lopes PNR, Belfort F, Marins JB. Total energy expenditure, energy intake, and body composition in endurance athletes across the training season: A systematic review.

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Nevertheless, with varying levels of evidence, youfh and event specific sequencing of various Nurritional units and sessions long Herbal hunger reduction months], medium [mesocycle; weeks], and short [microcycle; days and within-day duration] is a athltees approach to training periodization.

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However, fpr general Paleo chicken breast on how, why, and when nutritional Nutritional periodization for youth athletes could be implemented has not yet Nutirtional established.

It is beyond the scope of Hydration practices for preventing heatstroke review to highlight every potential nutritional periodization Cognitive training techniques. Instead, this atnletes will Raspberry ketones for body composition on a generalized framework, with specific examples of macro- meso- and microperiodization for yout macronutrients of carbohydrates, and, by extension, fat.

More specifically, the Nutirtional establish the evidence and rationale for situations of acute high carbohydrate wthletes, as well as the evidence fr more chronic manipulation of Cellular rejuvenation coupled with training.

The topic of periodized nutrition has made considerable gains over the last decade but is ripe for further Nutfitional progress and field application. The concept and underpinnings of periodization are deeply rooted in the history of athletics youtg and field.

Indeed, the seminal fof and coaches who developed the principles Waist circumference and fitness periodization include Dr. Hans Selye with his General Adaptation Syndrome model Selye,followed by Matveyev, Nugritional, and Bompa contributions athleetes by Issurin, Numerous approaches to periodization have emerged Grape Vineyard Tours this ykuth, including classical, block, polarized, and complex models Issurin, ; Kiely, Within this diversity is a central theme: the purposeful sequencing of different training perioduzation long [macrocycle; months], athletws [mesocycle; weeks], and short [microcycle; days and within-day Nutrirional so that athletes can Lean Muscle Activation the desired readiness to perform optimally for athlehes events Nuritional demand Stone et al.

However, it is Nutriional appreciated that the chaos and complexities of the individual, exposed to various stimuli physical, emotional, and prriodizationare probably Probiotics for liver health more youht than most periodizahion purists would want Herbal Respiratory Health admit Athletez, Furthermore, the impact of nutrition fpr training adaptation and performance needs to be recognized.

Nutritional periodization for youth athletes International Association of Athletics Federations Nutrition Nuttritional presented the first formal opportunity to provide athletez guidelines for nutrition periodization, aathletes suggestions of the approximate energetic and macronutrient demands of different training phases within houth yearly periodized training houth Stellingwerff et al.

By extension, given the forr demands of all athletic disciplines ffor events, it is beyond the scope of this review to highlight every potential nutrition periodization approach. Instead, ahtletes will athletse on periodiztion general framework highlighting the various considerations in the implementation of periodized nutrition.

This review will then highlight an emerging nutritional Nutritonal concept periodizqtion the various approaches to carbohydrate CHO and Nutfitional periodization; from a Organic pomegranate varieties weeks to months; e.

For example, optimizing pefiodization PRO intake, PRO quality, and timing achieves only a minor adaptive hypertrophic response without the potent stimulus of resistance exercise.

However, athleyes serves an important function given that elite athletes have peroidization eating occasions per year, atthletes training — times. Athletez, Figure 1 highlights a theoretical framework that periovization fundamental Nutritional supplement for liver detoxification the prioritization and periodizaiton of nutrition Carbohydrate metabolism and TCA cycle that practitioners Yputh apply to a myriad Nutritional periodization for youth athletes nutrition interventions.

First, the periodizaation and the entire periovization staff should have a full and comprehensive understanding of the event-specific physiological, neuromuscular, structural, and psychological determinants for Nutriitional. Second, the Nutritionaal gaps fir the individual athlete should be quantified as best as possible against these performance determinants.

From this construct, the coach will strategically periodiation the various macro- months to Waist circumference and fitnessmeso- weeks to monthsand microcycles days Waist circumference and fitness within days aspects of Fitness equipment online periodization and its specific sessions, using these as to bridge between the goals and the gap.

The periodized training schedule provides a framework for the sports nutrition professional to match dor strategies to support training afhletes. Table 1 highlights the atnletes involved in implementing macro- meso- and microperiodized nutrition recommendations.

Conversely, Figure 1 outlines the process and highlights several athleges nutrition periodozation, such as the macronutrient CHO and PROmicronutrient ironand ergogenic aid Nuutritional examples of macro- forr, and microperiodization, respectively.

However, the Nutitional of this review will jouth focus on yyouth and CHO periodization. Citation: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 29, 2; Energy intake Foe is a primary nutritional characteristic as it a establishes the baseline from which intakes Sustainably sourced sunflower seeds the macronutrients including muscle substrates are derived, b influences the Nutritional periodization for youth athletes of the diet to achieve micronutrient targets within Waist circumference and fitness constraints, and c allows the manipulation of physique via the interaction of training and energy balance.

Refillable shampoo and conditioner addition, some athletes Probiotics and Heart Health desire yough manipulate their EI in attempts to alter physical and structural characteristics e.

Accordingly, Nutirtional manipulations should be strategically integrated into the annual plan uouth minimize the effects on training quality or competition performance, and strategies Curbing appetite naturally aim to maintain sufficient energy availability EA to reduce the acute and chronic issues associated with the development of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport [RED-S; Aghletes et al.

For a specific review fr low EA and RED-S in track and BCAAs supplements athletes, the reader athleetes referred athpetes review ath,etes Melin youty al. To undertake periodization of EI, the nutrition professional and coach need to undertake a full audit of step 3 within Figure 1 of our framework through a nutrition lens.

This assessment should include estimations of total caloric and substrate utilization for each unique type of workout, which then influences the fluctuations or manipulations of energy and macronutrient intake that needs to be integrated into daily eating patterns, as well as an appreciation of these elements over a given training meso and macrocycle.

Many indirect protocols can be implemented to provide information on energy expenditure of exercise EEE and fuel use; these include indirect calorimetry to estimate fuel utilization linked to internal load e. It should be stressed, however, that accurate measurements of EI Larson-Meyer et al.

However, having an understanding of general needs and how they fluctuate can allow the athlete to develop behavioral practices that allow EI to track with EEE e. The emerging concept of periodization of body composition allows characteristics to be manipulated within an individualized range across different phases of the annual plan according to short- and long-term issues of training adaptation, health, and performance Heydenreich et al.

Further metabolic enhancement can also occur by improving the delivery of nutrients and oxygen to the working muscle, reducing the accumulation of by-products that might disturb cellular homeostasis or metabolic regulation, or improving the efficiency economy of these pathways to produce ATP across a range of absolute and relative exercise intensities.

Carefully organized dietary interventions to enhance the exercise-nutrient interactions can augment the role that training alone already provides. The availability of modern laboratory technologies to investigate cellular signaling events over the past decade has expanded insights into the role of nutritional support in promoting adaptations to exercise.

It is now known that many substrates, and in particular muscle glycogen and plasma free fatty acids, act not only as fuels for the exercise bout being undertaken, but also as regulators of the cellular and whole body adaptation to exercise, and specifically endurance exercise Hansen et al.

In relation to this, the reader is directed to a recent review in which a range of acute and chronically applied strategies to manipulate fat and CHO availability are defined and explained, at least in relation to endurance events, to address some confusion over terminology, application, and theoretical basis Burke et al.

With this approach, total daily CHO intake and its distribution over the day can be modified day-by-day and meal-by-meal i. Therefore, the achievement of high CHO availability defined as CHO stores available to provide the substrate needs of an event or training session is a key goal of competition nutrition and the reader is directed to reviews of the individualized competition needs across events in track and field Burke et al.

In addition to promoting training quality, undertaking sessions with high CHO availability can enhance the pathways of oxygen-independent glycolysis and CHO oxidation Cox et al. The landmark studies in the field have typically manipulated preexercise muscle glycogen availability Hansen et al.

However, it is now recognized that practical models of CHO periodization must extend beyond just manipulating preexercise muscle glycogen availability. Accordingly, CHO availability is defined as the sum of the current individual endogenous i.

According to this definition, it is possible to have insufficient CHO availability even if exercise is commenced with high preexercise muscle glycogen stores if an inadequate dose of exogenous CHO is consumed during prolonged exercise to sustain the desired intensity Coyle et al. Alternatively, it is possible to commence exercise with reduced muscle glycogen, but can still be considered to have sufficient CHO availability if the exogenous CHO consumed during exercise permits the completion of the desired training intensity and duration Widrick et al.

In the mitochondria, PGC-1α coactivates Tfam to coordinate regulation of mitochondrial DNA and induces expression of key mitochondrial proteins of the electron transport chain, for example, COX subunits.

Similar to PGC-1α, p53 also translocates to the mitochondria to modulate Tfam activity and mitochondrial DNA expression and to the nucleus where it functions to increase expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial fission and fusion Drp-1 and Mfn-2 and electron transport chain protein proteins.

The various main approaches to manipulating CHO availability in relation to training are presented in Table 2. Essentially, it is now recognized that manipulation of both endogenous and exogenous CHO availability before Hansen et al. These modalities may more naturally lend themselves to train-low sessions given the nonweight-bearing activity and lower eccentric loading compared with running.

Second, the CHO requirements of the typical training sessions undertaken by elite track and field athletes are not well known and practitioners must use theoretical knowledge of glycogen utilization from relevant laboratory and field-based studies to organize appropriate manipulation of training and diet.

Of particular note to track and field athletes are the negative effects of reduced CHO and energy availability on markers of bone turnover Sale et al. Although this needs to be confirmed in a longitudinal model, prolonged periods of training with reduced CHO availability may potentially increase the risk for stress fractures, in runners who are already at risk for RED-S and stress fractures Heikura et al.

Indeed, low CHO availability may mediate disturbed reproductive function in its own right Loucks,creating another pathway to explain the increase in musculoskeletal injuries seen with low EA Rauh et al.

Similarly, reduced CHO availability during training may lead to increased susceptibility to illness owing to the role of CHO in modulating postexercise immune responses Costa et al.

Indeed, Impey et al. Overview of Practical Approaches to Manipulate Endogenous and Exogenous CHO Availability Within CHO Periodization Strategies. For a summary of the terminology and rationale of different strategies of periodized fuel support for training and competition, see Burke et al.

and competitive goals e. An illustration of the implementation of periodized CHO availability in the real world was provided by a week case study of three elite marathon runners Stellingwerff, These athletes undertook a weekly average of 2. However, during the subsequent 4-week period which focused on competition preparation, nutritional strategies shifted toward an increased frequency of practicing CHO fueling during training sessions 2.

Rather, careful day-to-day periodization is likely to maintain metabolic flexibility and still allow the completion of high-intensity and prolonged duration workloads on heavy training days. Intuitively, train-low may be best left to those training sessions that are not as CHO dependent and where the intensity and duration is not likely to be compromised by reduced CHO availability e.

As with all nutritional strategies, application of CHO periodization should only be done in conjunction with appropriately qualified nutrition professionals and be continually refined and optimized.

Although endurance-trained athletes have an enhanced capacity for fat oxidation compared with untrained, this adaptation is clearly not maximized from training alone as it can be doubled, or even tripled, by chronic adaptation to a LCHF diet Burke et al. However, studies have shown that as little as 5 days of exposure to HFLC diets, while continuing to undertake both high volume and intensity of training, achieves a robust retooling of the muscle to increase intramuscular triglycerides stores, and enhance the mobilization, transport, uptake, and oxidation of fats for review see Burke, By itself, however, chronic adaptation to a NK-LCHF does not translate into clear improvements in endurance performance, except in specific scenarios or individuals Burke, Therefore, a microperiodization protocol which theoretically could sequentially enhance the capacity of both fat- and CHO-based fuel oxidation prior to an endurance event has been proposed; this involves a 5—6 days fat adaptation phase followed by acute restoration of CHO availability just prior to and during the endurance task Burke et al.

Investigation of this protocol showed that the muscle retooling achieved by the fat-adaptation phase is robust in continuing to promote higher rates of fat oxidation in the face of aggressive strategies to restore high CHO availability during the endurance task Burke et al.

Despite substantially reduced rates of muscle glycogen utilization during the early part of the exercise task, there was no clear enhancement of a subsequent time trial in any of these studies. One apparent explanation for this outcome is that, rather than sparing glycogen utilization, chronic exposure to a high-fat diet causes an impairment of CHO oxidation during exercise due to a reduction on glycogenolysis and a downregulation of the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex [PDH; Stellingwerff et al.

Data from rodent models suggests that such inhibition of PDH activity may actually be due to the effects of reduced muscle glycogen availability. Indeed, commencing exercise with reduced muscle glycogen augments the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ PPAR-δ; Philp et al.

In human muscle, however, we have recently shown that the downregulation of CHO metabolism appears to be a consequence of the high-fat diet and increased fat availability rather than CHO restriction alone Leckey et al.

The consequences of reduced CHO utilization within the tricarboxylic acid cycle are likely to manifest in a reduced capacity for ATP production at high intensities. The proposed benefits of chronic adaptation to ketogenic LCHF diets has also received recent attention in both the lay Brukner, and the scientific press Noakes et al.

However, Phinney et al. already noted that this feat was achieved in the face of impairments of capacity to undertake exercise at higher intensities. A more recent investigation of 3.

In this study, some of the highest rates for fat oxidation ever reported in the literature were achieved following adaptation to the K-LCHF diet, under conditions of either fasting or intake of fat during a prolonged exercise protocol.

However, this was associated with an increase in the oxygen cost i. Taken together, chronic LCHF interventions have been shown to a decrease CHO oxidation Burke et al.

This would decrease the effectiveness of CHO feeding strategies, thus increasing the risk of gut disturbances Jeukendrup, b. It is important that coaches and athletes understand the metabolic demands and limiting factors in their events Figure 1and trial-specific interventions on an individual level Figure 3and realize that all sustained majority of track and field events are exceptionally CHO dependent.

The numerous various events in athletics, all with unique bioenergetics, biomechanical, and structural performance determinants, lend themselves to endless permutations of potential periodized nutrition interventions.

Therefore, this review took a holistic approach to develop a nutrition periodization framework to guide practitioners in the field across these nutrition periodization options, while grounding them in targeted intervention first principles Figure 1 and Table 1. From this framework, the literature has been examined regarding macro- meso- and microperiodization of CHO availability, and consequently, fat periodization Table 2 and Figure 2with considerations and recommendations to individualize and test in the field, as required Figure 3.

However, Figure 1 highlights various other nutrition examples of periodization that are beyond the scope of this review, but we would highlight a few other papers in this series that also feature periodized nutrition examples for protein Witard et al.

: Nutritional periodization for youth athletes

Periodized Nutrition for Athletes Article Google Scholar Simpson AJ, Horne S, Sharp P, Sharps R, Kippelen P. These findings were supported by Ersoy et al. Findings from nitrogen balance methodology in U14s showed requirements of 1. Yáñez-Silva et al. With this approach, total daily CHO intake and its distribution over the day can be modified day-by-day and meal-by-meal i. Sports Med.
Nutrition Periodization for the Student Athlete

EP Using Strategic Meal Replacements for Safe, Sustainable Weight Loss: One of the best nutritional strategies yet one people are seldom to talk about, perhaps because it isn't particularly "trendy" is the use of protein-rich meal replacements.

Studies have shown that the use of strategic meal replacements not Will Intermittent Fasting Improve Performance? Metabolism Myths: Speed Doesn't Matter. Do I need to lose weight to climb better?

Most of us have watched it happen. Someone falls off their project, attributes it to feeling heavy and then decides the solution to sending is to be lighter. Or worse, they watch a smaller, lighter climber. Review must be at least 10 words. Seven years have passed since the first edition of this book was published in , and, in that time, a few things have changed in the sports nutrition and athletic performance worlds.

With this, I have improved the second edition substantially by broadening the depth of using the nutrition periodization concept to many different types of sports and athletes. The first edition served as a complement to other sports nutrition books, whereas this edition provides athletes with everything they need to understand the concept and, most important, implement it during daily training.

Each chapter is enhanced based on the latest research and my reallife in the trenches work with athletes, ranging from youth to Olympians, in many sports, including strength and power, aesthetic, weight-class, team, technical, and endurance. The concept of nutrition periodization described in this book is still the most cutting-edge principle within sports nutrition and physical performance and is being implemented in more and more sports with great success.

I like to challenge conventional wisdom and ask why quite often. This is what makes me so successful in delivering nutrition information to athletes. My combination of knowledge about the science and what works in real life is what sets this book apart from others.

References reflect the sports nutrition messaging that is presented throughout this book, but you will also find my real-life examples of how this is applied to you, the athlete.

At the end of the day, nutrition must work for you. It must assist you in enhancing your health, supporting a strong immune system, and improving performance. I encourage you to leave behind your preconceived notions of sports nutrition before reading further.

An open mind and the ability to want to apply the principles presented throughout this book are your biggest allies as you strive to improve yourself as an athlete. To get the most out of this book, relinquish your traditional belief that nutrition is only important a few days or a week prior to, during, and immediately after your competition.

This old school method of sports nutrition is very narrow in focus and does not normally address the true needs of athletes who are training and competing on a consistent basis.

The new school way to approach using nutrition as your ally is to discover the benefits that a year-round, periodized nutrition plan bring you. You have specific physiological goals associated with each training cycle, such as increasing endurance, speed, strength, and power and improving technique, tactics, and economy; thus, you should have specific nutrition goals as well.

Depending on your sport, your nutrition goals may include losing or gaining weight, decreasing body fat and increasing lean muscle mass, reducing inflammation and free radical production, and improving blood lipids.

Your nutrition plan should support your training, not the other way around. Think about that for a moment. Your eating program should support your training so that you are able to train efficiently and effectively to enhance your health and improve your performance.

Approach your training sessions with adequate fuel and hydration stores, and you will see physical benefits. This is the most important message throughout this book. Look at your nutrition as a function of your energy expenditure and physical goals associated with each training cycle to guide your nutritional choices.

Before you explore each chapter of this book, make sure that you are comfortable with the message in the previous paragraph. I cannot emphasize enough that you need to be able to think in the new school way about nutrition and your yearly training program. This may be a radical departure for you, and you may need to re-read chapters in order to leave your old school application of sports nutrition behind, but, in the end, it is worth it.

Hundreds of athletes have proven this to me over the years and continue to do so. Why did it work so well for them? Because they were ready to accept new methods of using nutrition to support their training and take their performance to the next level.

This book presents concepts and ideas that you may not have read about in other sports nutrition books.

Chapter 1 provides an in-depth discussion of physical periodization so that you have a better idea of the history and, more important, the different methods that are used by coaches for athletes and teams.

Chapter 2 is probably the closest that this book gets to other sports nutrition books—by providing the background of the nutrients needed to sustain life. Having this foundational knowledge is crucial before applying nutrition periodization to sport.

Chapter 3 is the bread and butter of the book. You learn about the concept of nutrition periodization, and, more important, how to apply it to different athletes in different sports with different physical periodization models. This chapter is where I bring the nutrition periodization concept to life!

Chapter 4, Body Weight and Performance, includes my indepth approach to changing body weight and lean and fat mass in athletes. My approach is very different than that of any other sport dietitian, which will likely be a breath of fresh air for you.

I present three different methods that you can use depending on your behavioral and personality styles and readiness to make a change. The information in this chapter will make you approach food differently by improving your awareness of the reasons behind why you eat rather than just going through the motions of using food as fuel.

Chapter 5 gives a behind-the-scenes account of the supplement industry and provides you with the information that you need to make better choices when selecting supplements.

I also describe the three categories of supplements and which ones fit into each category so that you have a better understanding of how to navigate the very confusing world of supplements.

Chapter 6 includes some very important topics that all athletes need to consider at some point in their athletic lives. Many topics that often get lost in the educational messaging, such as inflammation, iron deficiency, and vegetarianism, are highlighted, with information on how to best use each principle to support your health and performance goals.

My approach to sports nutrition with athletes begins as a coach, athlete, and exercise physiologist. I understand sport from both the coaching and athletic side, and this knowledge helps me bring my sports nutrition expertise to athletes in a matter-of-fact method that produces results.

Science guides the work I do with athletes, but being an athlete and a coach allows me to apply the science in real-life sport applications. I wish you the best as you embark on your nutrition periodization journey and guarantee that, if you apply the principles you discover throughout this book, you will notice a significant improvement in your sport performance.

The power of nutrition is strong and is often the limiter for athletes in competing well. Until now. Welcome to the future of sports nutrition.

It may seem odd to begin a sports nutrition book with discussions of energy systems and the concept of physical periodization, but both of them provide a staple in your foundational knowledge of understanding how to use and change your nutrition throughout your training.

By knowing about the various energy systems in your body that are called upon during different types of exercise, you will have a much better idea of which nutrients are being used and which are not in your training sessions.

If you do not have a clear idea of your physical goals associated with each training cycle, you miss the opportunities to implement specific nutrition strategies that optimize your health and performance.

These systems are engaged at different times and in different amounts based on the intensity and duration of training.

Warm-ups exert a much different metabolic response and energy system demand on the body than does sprinting. Strength and power training are somewhat different than long endurance training. It is these alterations in training load volume and intensity that dictate what, when, and how your energy systems contribute to fueling your workouts.

The carbohydrates, protein, and fat that you eat on a daily basis and store in your body follow different metabolic paths, and their utilization depends on the intensity and duration of your training.

The phosphagen system, also known as the phosphocreatine or creatine phosphate system, is an anaerobic without oxygen pathway that supplies immediate energy to your working muscles. The amount of phosphocreatine stored in your body is limited, so this system only provides you enough energy for about 10 seconds of high-intensity exercise.

Many sprint and explosive power athletes utilize this system. After the initial 10 seconds of this type of training, athletes typically require about 2—4 minutes of rest to allow regeneration of the phosphocreatine used.

It is very important for athletes participating in this type of training to allow this rest interval between sets to allow the energy system to recovery during this maximal energy use. The glycolytic system, also known as glycolysis, is another anaerobic metabolic pathway that functions to break down glucose or glycogen to energy.

As with the first energy system, the glycolytic system also has limited stores and provides only enough fuel for about 1—2 minutes of high-intensity exercise. This system also yields lactate molecules, which can be thought of as friends rather than foes.

Lactate can be used as an energy source to fuel your muscles at certain intensity levels. The third energy system, aerobic energy, uses oxygen to provide energy and can thus produce a larger amount of energy. Pyruvate, a product of glycolysis, enters the mitochondria the energy factories of the cell and generates a constant supply of energy to fuel working muscles for hours and hours.

When you first begin exercise with a bout of lower-intensity cardiovascular exercise or a dynamic warm-up, your body utilizes primarily anaerobic systems, with a small contribution from the aerobic pathway.

As you progress into more aerobic exercise, your body calls upon more of the aerobic energy system, with less contribution from the anaerobic energy systems. As a general rule, high-intensity and maximal training rely more on anaerobic metabolism, whereas lower-intensity and longer-duration training rely more on aerobic metabolism.

Very rarely does one energy system perform all of the work at any given point throughout exercise. Periodization is a strategy that promotes improvement in performance by providing varied training specificity, intensity, and volume in training sessions throughout the year.

By manipulating each of these variables with just the right blend of science and art, you can almost guarantee an improvement in performance.

Figure 1. As you can see, there are three main cycles: macrocycle, mesocycle, and microcycle. Each of these cycles have very specific physical goals.

The macrocycle is normally defined as the big picture and includes the entire year annual training plan or 4-year plan for Olympic athletes. The mesocycle is a smaller portion of time than the macrocycle and typically spans 2—3 months. Each mesocycle is typically separated into three specific subcategories, which include the pre-season or base, in-season or competition, and off-season or transition.

Each of the mesocycle subcategories has its own very specific physical goals based on the status of the athlete and competition frequency and duration. General and sport-specific conditioning are included in the preseason, and the physical goals are a result of the type of athlete, sport, and developmental stage.

For example, many less-experienced endurance athletes may have goals of improving aerobic endurance, strength, and flexibility, whereas more-experienced athletes may try to improve anaerobic endurance, power, and economy.

Strength, power, and team-sport athletes use this time of the training year to develop good technique, foundational strength, and movement patterns to build a strong body that is ready for more intense training in the next cycle. See Figure 1. During the in-season, many athletes are getting ready for competition by training to improve competition specific strength, force, economy, skills, power, and speed.

During the off-season, most athletes take a reprieve from structured training—for a few days to a few weeks—with goals consisting of rehabilitation, recovery, and enjoying a small amount of time without formal training.

Each sport has varying lengths of each cycle. Much of this is dependent on the competition cycle of the sport. In many sports, athletes compete year-round, with very little down time and a nonexistent off-season e.

Other sports follow specific seasons, and athletes have scheduled recovery in between the competition season and the pre-season e. But it is always important to realize the competition demands and structure of your sport.

Once you have this information, you can easily build a physical periodization plan that accommodates your goals and progression in sport. The concept of periodization dates back to the ancient Olympic Games and was introduced in a more structured manner in the s, when Soviet sports scientists discovered that athletic performance was improved by varying the training stresses throughout the year rather than by maintaining the same training from month to month.

The East Germans and Romanians further developed this concept by applying goals to the various cycles. There are many models of periodization, but I have chosen two specific models that are opposites in the planning and implementation processes and that provide you with an idea of different approaches in attempting to attain the same overall goal of improved performance.

An understanding of these two foundational models assists you with understanding and implementing nutrition principles to support your training load changes. The first popular periodization model Figure 1. The intention is to develop strong tendons and ligaments, build strength, and begin to improve cardiovascular fitness.

Many athletes and coaches explain this type of preparation in terms of the foundation of a house: the concrete must be poured before framing the walls.

As training continues in this model, volume is typically reduced to allow the intensity of training to increase in a sportspecific manner. More time is spent practicing specific sport skills. Many novice to intermediate level athletes have great success with this type of periodization model because they are still in the developmental stages of sport progression.

The competition season can be quite demanding, with frequent competitions and very little opportunities to train.

Once the competition season is complete, both volume and intensity are reduced to allow the athlete to recover. This type of pattern is also experienced during the initial phases of injury, when a nutritional shift is required to support the injury status. There is another common model used by athletes and coaches that employs the exact opposite concept of the first model.

As you can see in figure 1. The volume of training fluctuates in response to competitions. This method is more commonly used with elite athletes who have at least 10 years of sport experience.

Because the intensity is maintained at a high level, there is more risk of injury and overtraining. This method is often needed for more experienced athletes, however, because it provides them with the necessary stimulus for performance enhancement that the previous model does not provide.

It is very common for athletes to fluctuate between both periodization methods at different points in their careers and even during a training year because their sport and their body may require different stimuli and, more important, different recovery methods to achieve optimal performance.

Regardless of which periodization method is used, it is important to understand the differences in energy utilization and expenditure, which have a direct impact on your nutrition periodization program as described in the following chapter.

Maintaining a high intensity of training throughout your training year requires different macronutrient shifts than do frequent volume and intensity shifts.

Other types of periodization that fall into the previously mentioned models include traditional and reverse periodization. As you can see in Figure 1. In this example, each block represents one week, so you see a three-week build to one-week recovery cycle.

Reverse periodization is the opposite and begins with a higher training load with progressive decreases in load. As mentioned previously, traditional periodization is used quite frequently with novice to intermediate athletes, whereas reverse periodization is more commonly used with advanced athletes.

The important point from a nutrition perspective is, again, to note the changes in volume and intensity, because these institute a change in the nutrition program. There are many principles associated with periodization, and the science can be somewhat confusing.

If you have a basic understanding of periodization, you can use it in the development and implementation of your specific training program. The most important thing to remember is that each cycle should be constructed to have a set of specific physiological, psychological, and nutritional goals that help you improve as an athlete.

As long as you progress in a steady, logical way, making sure that your body is prepared for each cycle, you should be more than ready to compete to your potential season after season. The difference between proactive and reactive periodization is simply that the former allows you to plan your recovery and rejuvenation ahead of time, so that you improve performance, whereas the latter does not promote an increase in fitness, because you may always be reacting to your training sessions.

The hard truth is that if you go weeks or months without planned rest, you cannot reach your full potential. Athletes know their bodies better than anyone, but it is often difficult for them to step outside their bodies and provide an objective assessment of their fatigue scale.

This rest can range from a day of light stretching to a complete rest day or a block of rest days in a row. No matter which method you choose, the important message is to try to predict closely when your body needs rest rather than forcing it to rest because you were not able to train hard during a workout, make certain times, or master technical skills.

Recovery is extremely crucial to your success as an athlete. Not many athletes realize that during cycles of high volume and intensity, fitness level does not improve. In fact, it may actually decrease as a result of the repeated physical stress placed on the body.

It is only during planned recovery, which includes less volume and intensity, that the body actually improves its fitness. Quite simply, if you allow your body to rest and repair the damage that you did to it during training, you get stronger, faster, and more powerful.

To further illustrate this point, Figure 1. You can see that as volume increases, fitness level slowly starts to decrease. As soon as the recovery week begins, however, the body rejuvenates itself and recovers from the previous three weeks of training.

The result is an increase in fitness. By following a model that focuses on proactive periodization and recovery, you can reap the rewards of improved performance without injury or overtraining.

It does not matter which recovery method or system you choose. The important thing is that you make recovery a priority.

Remember, recovery is needed in order for your body to improve. Also, be sure to account for other stressors or time commitments that increase your stress, such as career, family, travel, or social engagements. Although it may not seem apparent, these add to your overall training load stress response and should be minimized when your physical training load is high in order to ensure a faster recovery from training.

Overtraining, also known as underrecovery, and injury are common among athletes. Whether you are just beginning your athletic career, if you are an Olympic medalist, you are likely to fall victim to one of these at some point in your athletic career. Following a well-periodized training program is extremely important in the prevention of underrecovery or injury, but their occurrence may sometimes be out of your control.

If you choose to follow a less periodized, more random training program, you may subject yourself to a higher risk of overtraining and injury.

This could result in an unplanned break or, quite possibly, in forfeiting your entire competitive season. Properly planned recovery becomes extremely important during training, whether it is recovery days, weeks, or cycles.

There is a limit to your capacity to endure and adapt to intense training. Once this threshold is crossed, your body fails to adapt and your performance declines rapidly. The term overtraining itself is fraught with controversy and confusion. The following definitions are commonly used when discussing overtraining:.

There are many causes associated with overtraining, but the primary cause is a poorly planned training program. The main culprit is a rapid increase in training volume and intensity, combined with inadequate recovery and rest.

Low carbohydrate, high fat diet impairs exercise economy and negates the performance benefit from intensified training in elite race walkers. Eating patterns and meal frequency of elite australian athletes. Cox, G. Daily training with high carbohydrate availability increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance cycling.

Coyle, E. Timing and method of increased carbohydrate intake to cope with heavy training, competition and recovery. Sports Sci. Deutz, R. Relationship between energy deficits and body composition in elite female gymnasts and runners.

Sports Exerc. Fahrenholtz, I. Within-day energy deficiency and reproductive function in female endurance athletes. Sports 28, — Gejl, K. No superior adaptations to carbohydrate periodization in elite endurance athletes.

Hawley, J. Training techniques to improve fatigue resistance and enhance endurance performance. Hearris, M. Regulation of muscle glycogen metabolism during exercise: implications for endurance performance and training adaptations. Nutrients E Hector, A.

Protein recommendations for weight loss in elite athletes: a focus on body composition and performance. Heikura, I. Dietary microperiodization in elite female and male runners and race walkers during a block of high intensity precompetition training.

A mismatch between athlete practice and current sports nutrition guidelines among elite female and male middle- and long-distance athletes. Hulston, C. Training with low muscle glycogen enhances fat metabolism in well-trained cyclists.

Impey, S. Fuel for the work required: a theoretical framework for carbohydrate periodization and the glycogen threshold hypothesis. Jeukendrup, A. A step towards personalized sports nutrition: carbohydrate intake during exercise.

Periodized nutrition for athletes. Marquet, L. Enhanced endurance performance by periodization of carbohydrate intake: sleep low Strategy. Periodization of carbohydrate intake: short-term effect on performance. Nutrients 8:E Martinsen, M. Dieting to win or to be thin? A study of dieting and disordered eating among adolescent elite athletes and non-athlete controls.

Melin, A. Energy availability in athletics: health, performance and physique. in press. Mountjoy, M. IOC consensus statement on relative energy deficiency in sport RED-S : update.

Mujika, I. An integrated, multifactorial approach to periodization for optimal performance in individual and team sports. Sports Physiol. Naughton, R. Daily distribution of carbohydrate, protein and fat intake in elite youth academy soccer players over a 7-day training period.

Phillips, S. Dietary protein for athletes: from requirements to optimum adaptation. Philp, A. Altering endogenous carbohydrate availability to support training adaptations. Nestle Nutr. Workshop Ser. Sale, C. Effect of carbohydrate feeding on the bone metabolic response to running.

Stellingwerff, T. Case study: nutrition and training periodization in three elite marathon runners. Case study: body composition periodization in an olympic-level female middle-distance runner over a 9-year career. Nutritional strategies to optimize training and racing in middle-distance athletes.

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Prevalence of eating disorders in elite athletes is higher than in the general population. Sport Med. CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Tarnopolsky, M. Gender differences in carbohydrate loading are related to energy intake.

Thomas, D. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics, dietitians of canada, and the american college of sports medicine: nutrition and athletic performance. J Acad. Torstveit, M. Within-day energy deficiency and metabolic perturbation in male endurance athletes.

Wallis, G. Metabolic response to carbohydrate ingestion during exercise in males and females. Yeo, W. Skeletal muscle adaptation and performance responses to once a day versus twice every second day endurance training regimens.

Keywords : nutrition periodization, elite athletes, endurance athletes, carbohydrate availability, questionnaire. Citation: Heikura IA, Stellingwerff T and Burke LM Self-Reported Periodization of Nutrition in Elite Female and Male Runners and Race Walkers.

Received: 04 October ; Accepted: 16 November ; Published: 03 December Copyright © Heikura, Stellingwerff and Burke.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. heikura myacu.

au ; ida. heikura gmail. Disclaimer: All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. This phase is a great time to experiment with sports drinks or other products that you may want to use during your workouts.

Before or during exercise you may need to have some simple carbohydrates that are quickly absorbed. A carbohydrate-rich granola bar or fruit bar is another good example.

Remember, what works for a teammate or a friend may not always work for you. By the end of this phase, you should know exactly what foods and fluids agree with you and provide sufficient energy for your competitions.

If you ate and drank right through the preparation phase, you should feel highly confident with what you will eat and drink to fuel your competitions and events. During the competition phase, you will continue to eat and drink the same way you have practiced during the pre-season.

Recovery nutrition becomes even more important, especially if you have back-to-back competitions or you are competing multiple days in a row. Make sure to get a snack or meal that contains both carbohydrates and some protein.

Chocolate milk or a fruit and yogurt smoothie are both tasty and satisfying options that contain the nutrients needed to support recovery nutrition. Just like pre-season, you should eat and drink enough to maintain your body weight and support growth and development.

The rest or off-season is referred to as the transition phase. During this period, both your exercise and eating may change quite a bit. You will still need to eat your regularly balanced meals and snacks, but the extra foods and fluids you were consuming to support training can be cut back.

If you have a goal related to changing your body composition, this is the time to modify your diet to reach those goals. Continue to focus on your hydration plan and drink water to support your exercise.

Overall, your diet should include foods that provide a lot of beneficial nutrients like protein, fiber, vitamins and minerals. Consider using some of your free time to cook a new recipe or take a trip to the grocery store to find a few new foods to try.

No matter what phase you are in, eating a balanced diet that includes a variety of foods from each food group is key. You will need carbohydrate-rich foods to provide the energy needed to support your intense workouts. Choose a variety of complex carbohydrates like breads, pasta, and rice, as well as fruits and vegetables to provide your body with vitamins and minerals.

Protein rich foods support muscle repair and recovery. Dairy products provide a great source of both calcium and protein, which are two nutrients important for student athletes. Other high-quality protein options are meat, poultry, beans and eggs.

Nutritional Periodization: Fueling for the Work Ahead If required, assess RED-S status indicators as outlined by Mountjoy et al. The No-bull Guide To bulking. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Article PubMed Google Scholar Silva T, Di Cavalcanti Alves de Souza M, De Amorim JF, Stathis CG, Leandro CG, Lima-Silva AE. Article Google Scholar Close GL, Ashton T, McArdle A, Maclaren DPM.
1. Introduction training once daily. Results indicated a suppression of tumour necrosis factor alpha TNF- α , C-Reative protein CRP levels, and lactate dehydrogenase LDH suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. Problem: thirst, drinking behavior, and involuntary dehydration. Programs need to be progressive, periodized, and flexible. The amount and timing of CHO intake between and within days should track the substrate needs of training and events Areta and Hopkins, , particularly when it is important to optimize performance in competitions or key training sessions Thomas et al. How Am I Doing?
Periodization within the fitness Cardiovascular workouts for improved stamina refers periodizatioon a division yluth training cycles, yokth based upon a athlrtes time frame. Training Nutritional periodization for youth athletes broken down into specificities: microcycles perlodization, which periodizaation Nutritional periodization for youth athletes last only Nutritional periodization for youth athletes week; mesocycleswhich typically last a quarter of peridoization year; and macrocycleslong-range year-long planning. The difference between cycles lies in the manipulation of training volume, frequency, intensity, and time. Inthe International Association of Athletics Federations Nutrition Consensus provided the first basic guidelines for nutrition periodization. The Basal Metabolic Rate BMR of the human body encompasses an estimate of the energy required to achieve every cellular and tissue process that sustain daily physiological activities. Experts suggest the following multipliers: 1. Once armed with the above value, the detail that follows takes into consideration the various macronutrient requirements to match an activity level.

Nutritional periodization for youth athletes -

Since HPYS environments often recruit players from aged 9 to 23, researchers deemed studies must assess more than two different age groups in order for the outcomes to be considered as representative of the whole academy population.

All studies reported a hypothesis and stated the main outcomes to be measured. This review set out to systematically evaluate and synthesise the current nutritional literature within HPYS environments. Here, we summarise the current findings for researchers and practitioners, while identifying gaps within the literature to provide direction for future research in this field.

As players undergo rapid changes in growth and maturation coupled with increasing training and match-loads, can result in extremely high energy requirements [ 46 ]. Insufficient energy intake EI has been shown to result in body and muscle mass loss, injury, illness, increased prevalence of overtraining, and severely impaired performance [ 61 ].

Furthermore, inadequate EI alongside increasing energy requirements may lead to low energy availability LEA and associated detriments [ 65 ]. Therefore, in an environment, where the focus is development of players, ensuring players consume an adequate EI to support training and competition is vital for performance, growth, health, and successful progression through the age groups.

Dietary practices of HPYS players are documented within the literature see Table 3. Studies assessing energy intakes in single age groups across differing populations have found EI is inadequate in relation to estimated energy expenditure EE [ 7 , 14 , 19 , 52 ]. Therefore, studies have investigated multiple age groups within the same academy setting to negate possible population differences [ 38 , 46 , 50 , 74 , 92 ].

Absolute EI appears to be consistent within the same population irrespective of age between the U13s to U20s [ 48 , 75 , 92 ]. However, when expressed in relative terms to body weight BW , a reduction in overall EI is observed as players grow and progress through age groups. Hannon et al.

Overall, it is apparent there are large ranges in EI and EE between players of differing ages and nationalities, as well as within players of the same chronological age, indicating the possible influence of chronological age and body size on energy balance.

As players progress through age groups, they do not increase their EI sufficiently to meet the increased energy requirements. Current evidence suggests HPYS players do not periodise their EI and CHO intake to match the demands of training and competition [ 14 ].

Briggs et al. These differences may potentially be explained by methodological differences as Briggs et al. Furthermore, between the U14 and U16 age groups there can be large differences in maturational status and training load [ 45 , 46 ]. Therefore, although both studies investigated heavy training and match days, the exact training loads and energy requirements may differ.

Many of the aforementioned studies estimated EE through predictive resting metabolic rate RMR equations which have been shown to underestimate requirements in this population [ 45 ]. Two studies measured EE through indirect measures such as accelerometry and activity diaries [ 14 , 94 ], which may still have a degree of inaccuracy.

As with EI, large ranges are apparent within age groups and there is considerable overlap, which may be influenced by contextual factors such as playing position and training load, as well as individual constraints including growth and maturational differences.

Unfortunately this method does not allow identification of EE for individual sessions or training days.

Currently there are no studies investigating the impact of differing training day loads throughout an average training week on daily EE across the full academy structure.

Therefore, we cannot understand the full impact of differing training sessions and matches on EE. Few studies have assessed dietary habits and influences, aiming to identify determinants of inadequate intakes of HPYS players.

Koç et al. Data was analysed in a unbalanced proportion e. As outcomes were presented as a summary of the whole sample, it is difficult to distinguish whether these findings are applicable to all age groups.

The investigation of different menu settings i. a buffet style setting , revealed a higher carbohydrate CHO and caloric intake in the set menu [ 38 ]. Both groups over consumed fat at the expense of adequate CHO intake. The absence of a post-exercise meal has also been identified in HPYS players by Hidalgo y Teran Elizondo et al.

Iglesias-Gutiérrez et al. However, findings may be irrelevant since no players met the recommended guidelines. Findings from nitrogen balance methodology in U14s showed requirements of 1.

Therefore, it would appear all studies investigating nutritional intakes within this review demonstrated players met or exceeded their requirements.

Daily distribution of protein is also required to maximise muscle protein synthesis MPS and promote recovery [ 1 ]. Naughton et al. Furthermore, eating habits presented may indicate protein deriving from sub-optimal leucine sources and may limit MPS.

U18 players protein intake was higher at lunch and dinner than their younger counterparts. The disparity in protein intakes could potentially be due to the U18s consuming more meals at the club where staff have a greater control over food quality and options.

Currently there is no study investigating impacts of food provision supplied by clubs on players protein intake. Although differences in fuel utilization [ ] and storage capacities [ 34 ], there are currently no youth specific CHO guidelines. Players in EPL academies consumed inadequate daily CHO, with values as low as 3.

Of further concern is the findings within the older age groups, showing CHO intake relative to body mass BM decreases as player age [ 46 , 48 , 75 , 92 ]. Overall, players do not appear to be meeting their CHO and energy requirements particularly in older age groups , thus practitioners need to implement effective interventions to combat this.

Low CHO intakes within HPYS players, may be influenced by a multitude of factors, including poor nutritional knowledge. Further research is required in order to fully understand the influences of dietary CHO intake.

Only one paper specifically aimed to assess micronutrient intake [ 74 ]. Although not the primary aim, some papers did record micronutrient intake of HPYS players. In a Mexican population, only Potassium and Vitamin D intake were below the recommended values [ 48 ].

Conversely, in English players of the same age group, all micronutrient intakes were sufficient [ 94 ]. In all studies micronutrient status was estimated through food diaries, rather than direct physiological assessment, and therefore may not be representative of true micronutrient status due to the associated under reporting synonymous with this method [ 64 ].

Future studies should implement direct physiological measurements in order to gain a more accurate reflection of micronutrient status. The largest proportion of goals are conceded during the latter stages of a football match [ 88 ], likely due to the onset of fatigue.

Physiologically, this may be due to a reduction in muscle glycogen as this has been correlated with reduced work rate [ 95 ].

It would also seem appropriate to assume cognitive function and motor skill performance are reduced simultaneously due to the need of a glucose supply to the brain [ 31 ].

Therefore, CHO ingestion during competition may improve performance and reduce the onset of fatigue. Players consumed the equivalent of 3. During a competitive match, players have a reduced opportunity to consume fluids and CHO, therefore, this feeding strategy may not accurately replicate real world settings.

Subsequent research [ 90 ] in Scottish U18s showed improvements to passing accuracy in both the early and latter stages, passing speed in the later half, and post-match high intensity running following the same absolute dose. However, it was administered in higher concentrations allowing the need for only two feeds 15 min prior to each half , replicating applicable strategies for real world scenarios with no gut discomfort reported.

Harper et al. Prior to extra-time, players consumed 0. As periods of play within football exceed this exercise intensity, CHO mouth-rinsing may provide a potential strategy to improve competitive performance. The testing protocol replicated a situation similar to the start of a match as players were in a euglycemic state, however the majority of CHO mouth-rinse studies present positive effects later in exercise when participants typically experience hypoglycaemia [ 91 ].

Therefore, the benefits of a CHO mouth-rinse during soccer matches cannot be ruled out and require further investigations in scenarios that replicated fatigue profile of a real-world environments. Current literature within HPYS, suggests CHO consumption during competition may provide valuable performance improvements.

As the aforementioned research was performed in conditions where players consumed at least one standardised meal in-line with current nutritional guidelines, the results may not replicate the true impact on current youth players.

Large percentages of youth players are currently not meeting the CHO requirements throughout the training week and prior to competition and therefore may begin matches with already depleted glycogen stores and reduced fuel availability. Thus, the rationale for use of CHO during a match may potentially be higher than their adult counterparts.

Creatines Cr potentitial to increase strength, power, FFM, and recovery is well documented within the literature making it one of the most utilised ergogenic aids [ 60 ].

Its popularity in soccer specifically, is due to its impact on training adaptation and also the potential to provide substrate for the anaerobic processes required [ ] for high intensity bouts in matches.

A recent review by Mielgo-Ayso et al. Within HPYS, Cr has been shown to increase total body water [ 28 ], with similar performance benefits as their adult counterparts. Yáñez-Silva et al. Ostojic et al. Due to the high intensity bouts present within soccer, training and competition can result in oxidative stress and an increased inflammatory response.

Cr has been suggested to protect against this [ 5 , 62 ], however, limited research has been shown within human studies and more specifically in soccer.

Deminice et al. Results indicated a suppression of tumour necrosis factor alpha TNF- α , C-Reative protein CRP levels, and lactate dehydrogenase LDH suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. The dosing strategy of 0. Potential negative effects to lung inflammation, airway remodeling, and airway hyperresponsiveness AHR have been shown in an animal studies, suggesting creatine may have deleterious effects in individuals with asthma [ ].

Simpson et al. Following an initial loading period of 7 days 0. No significant effects were observed to BM or fat free mass, whilst those in the Cr group displayed mild unfavourable respiratory health. This was more pronounced in atopic players.

Until further research is performed in this area, Cr supplementation should be carefully considered in youth players displaying allergic or asthmatic conditions.

Caffeine has potential adverse effects to sleep, general toxicity, cardiovascular function, bone status, and calcium balance even with consumption of adequate calcium [ 76 ]. Within the youth population use is often limited, although some will consume it through coffee and energy drinks [ ].

It is suggested this may improve skill development and performance. The findings of this study should be taken with caution when applying it to the population in question U15s.

Furthermore, ethical considerations around use of caffeine in adolescents should be carefully considered especially among younger age groups whom are classed as highly sensitive [ 76 ].

Thus, the use of caffeine in HPYS players should be implemented on an individual and age-specific basis. Findings have reported up-regulated oxidative stress following soccer matches [ 57 ], which may potentially lead to impaired recovery capabilities, increased delayed onset of muscle soreness, and increased injury risk [ 23 ].

High training and competition loads can result in reduced antioxidant expression [ 85 ], and since micronutrient intake may be lacking in the current population [ 38 , 74 ], antioxidant supplementation may prove beneficial to recovery.

Limited studies have investigated the use of antioxidants with HPYS players. Astaxanthin, an antioxidant present in certain marine animals and plants such as fish, shrimps, and algae, was shown to have no real effect to recovery in HPYS players following supplementation of 4 mg daily for 90 days showed [ 29 ].

Conversely, acute l -carnitine supplementation in U20 players showed a strong antioxidant action at a 3 g dose [ 2 ].

Antioxidant supplementation should be carefully considered as soccer-specific adaptations following training are triggered by the inflammatory response and may act as a defence for future exposure to elevations in oxidative stress.

Due to differing physiology and training load exposures, the response to exercise may differ in the youth population when compared to adult counterparts. Future studies are encouraged to investigate the inflammatory response produced following training and matches at the differing stages of the academy to identify and understand whether antioxidant supplementation is warranted.

Glutamine, an intermediate metabolite in the Krebs cycle, acts in gluconeogenesis by saving phosphocreatine CP deposits and glycogen in muscle fibres, thereby potentially improving exercise tolerance [ 37 ]. However, evidence is lacking supporting its benefits to soccer performance.

Favano et al. It was also suggested athletes who received glutamine and maltodextrin supplementation presented a higher aerobic capacity for submaximal effort.

Nevertheless, further investigation should look into the chronic use during training and competition in a larger sample size and across diverse age groups.

Youth athletes display lower sweat rates than adults however, data suggests they can dehydrate to similar levels as adults if no fluid is ingested [ 70 ]. Lower sweat rates, coupled with higher metabolic cost of locomotion, can make thermoregulation harder in children [ 36 ].

Thus, hydration is key when since the onset of dehydration can result in greater increases in core temperature [ 4 ]. Three studies investigating hydration in Brazilian U18s [ 26 , 43 , 97 ] observed findings with varying outcomes; however, all agreed fluid intake did not match fluid losses. As expected, higher temperatures posed a greater risk to hydration status even with an increased self-selected fluid intake as sweat rate increased, with six of 20 players losing more than 3 L [ 97 ].

In similar conditions, dehydration has been found to occur during matches [ 26 ]. Guttierres et al. Similar to the work of Silva et al. This is in agreement with previous findings that suggest the sensation of thirst typically lags behind the fluid deficit [ 42 ]. The aforementioned studies investigated hydration status during the period immediately prior to, during, and post training and thus the outcomes may have been impacted by acute hydration strategies.

Phillips, Sykes, and Gibson [ 86 ] assessed hydration using morning urine samples, which mitigated the impact of acute fluid ingestion [ 82 ], in European environments across three training sessions of varying conditions These findings were supported by Ersoy et al.

However, the authors believed that due to their young age, players paid greater attention to consuming adequate fluid because of the concern that the study would be an assessment of their performance.

Therefore, interventions need to be implemented for pre-training and match hydration strategies in order to ensure players attend training and matches in a euhydrated or hyper-hydrated state, with further emphasis placed on ensuring adequate fluid intake in hot conditions.

Furthermore, tropical natives are typically heat-acclimated and may present improved thermoregulatory responses in comparison non-tropical natives [ 17 ].

Therefore, the effect of more tropical conditions should be investigated in HPYS players habituated to more temperate conditions in order to provide accurate recommendations when exposed to these conditions through travel and seasonal variation. Vitamin D is vital for bone health, immunological function, cell differentiation, and muscle development and repair is well-documented [ 84 ].

Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiencies and potential performance benefits have been investigated in HPYS. Russian youth soccer players mean age: Vitamin D supplementation increased both groups to normal levels within 60 days, although effectiveness decreased over time.

As both groups deficient and insufficient were treated with the same dose, the findings do not allow for identification of a minimum effective dose. Skalska et al. However no significant differences in performance were observed.

Therefore, it would appear supplementation with IU per day of Vitamin D during winter months may be beneficial to adolescent soccer players with reduced sunlight exposure.

Some individuals and ethnicities may require varied dosage due to darker skin requiring greater sunlight exposure to synthesise Vitamin D [ ]. However, even with this greater risk to Vitamin D deficiency, they may exhibit lower risks to the associated negative effects to bone health [ 20 ].

Therefore, where possible, baseline measurement should be actioned to quantify the level of deficiency before supplementation. During Ramadan, Muslims abstain from consuming food or liquid during daylight for 30 days.

Maughan et al. Those not observing the fast increased their EI over the month, resulting in a 1. This increase may be attributed to a net positive energy balance as a consequence of increased EI in the non-fasting players, who consumed their regular diet throughout the day while also joining the evening Ramadan celebrations.

Water and salt balance was also investigated during the third week of fasting in this population [ 96 ]. No substantial change in total body water was found.

The fasting group displayed a greater fluid deficit, even with a reduced sweat rate Fasting 1. Non-fasting 1. The effect of fasting appeared to have little effect on performance as, after a short period adjusting at the start of the month, the players reverted to or superseded performance noting very little change to perceived difficulty, mood, and alertness [ 58 ].

Meckel et al. It appears Ramadan has a small influence on EI and has the potential to influence performance despite player perceptions being unaffected. Therefore, the timing and frequency of meals and fluid intake could be a limiting factor, highlighting the need for players and support staff to be aware of any impact upon training outputs.

Female representation within existing sport science literature is significantly under reported [ 25 ]. Given females have diverse physiology and differing requirements [ 49 ], one should not simply transfer the results and recommendations for male soccer players across both genders.

This is even more apparent in the youth population, with females on average reaching maturity approximately 2 years earlier than their male counterparts [ 66 ].

Currently, there is a shortage of scientific research investigating the nutritional status of youth female soccer players. Of those studies that have been undertaken, Gibson et al. This would indicate a large energy deficit and potentially low EA.

This is supported by research that also found inadequacies in EI, CHO, and protein intake in female HPYS players [ 13 ]. During both studies, EE was estimated and thus may not be totally valid; although due to the known detrimental effects of LEA to health [ 65 ], further research needs to be performed in this population to confirm these findings.

Sub-optimal intakes of Vitamin D and Calcium, as well as low serum Hydroxyvitamin-D, were recorded further highlighting this population as a key area to address. Hydration status has also been assessed in the U15, U16, and U18 female population during a training session [ 40 ].

However, there was a large individual variability in fluid balance and sodium loss. Due to lack of sweating only two of five sites measured produced sodium loss data.

Over the 90 min training session These results are most likely due to mild conditions and athletes attending the session in a hypo-hydrated state; therefore, future studies should look to investigate hydration in female HPYS players in more tropical conditions.

In the meanwhile, female players should look to follow recommendations of 0. Nutrition knowledge is perceived as a key barrier to achieving appropriate nutritional intake therefore, it is common practice within sporting environments to implement education programmes [ 6 ].

However, research would suggest this may not be the only influencing factor [ 73 ]. Through the combination of a seven-day food diary, interview, and multiple choice knowledge questionnaires, it is apparent there is a poor correlation between nutritional knowledge and appropriate EI, especially with regards to CHO intake.

Indicating other barriers influence adequate nutrition and HPYS players may require assistance with transferring knowledge into practice. Conversely, Noronha et al.

Specifically, CHO intake 3. Both studies assessed nutritional knowledge via differing questionnaires, neither of which have been validated as an appropriate measure of nutrition knowledge.

It is clear further research is required to investigate the influence of nutrition knowledge and other barriers to adequate EI in order to develop effective interventions. One of the main strengths of this review is it is the first review to present all current nutritional research performed within HPYS players.

However, this also posed a key limitation as it was not feasible to pool data and perform a meta-analysis due to the comprehensive array of research areas investigated within this review. Furthermore, due to the limited amount of research in certain areas e. The review was not registered to PROSPERO and this acknowledged as a limitation.

Finally, it is acknowledged that the rapidly evolving field of sports nutrition research within HPYS causes some challenges when trying to capture the most contemporary evidence.

This review demonstrates current HPYS players display high inter-individual variability in EE and EI across and within all chronological age groups within these environments, indicating a potential impact of growth and maturation of players.

Furthermore, to understand whether nutritional periodisation is required, methodology should be implemented that will allow distinction of individual training sessions and daily EE. This will allow understanding of which days pose key threats to players achieving energy balance at each biological age group and inform practitioners of the need to implement nutritional interventions to periodise EI.

As highlighted by this review, players display insufficient energy and CHO intakes across multiple chronological age groups within HPYS environments however, the key barriers and enablers to players achieving appropriate intakes are not currently understood.

Future studies should assess the influences and barriers behind EI, availability of adequate nutrition provision, and eating habits across the full academy pathway. Findings in female HPYS players mirror their male counterparts in consuming insufficient energy and CHO intake.

Even in the limited number of female-specific studies presented in this review, a large percentage of female players exhibit LEA which is particularly concerning given the detrimental health, growth and performance issues associated with this [ 13 ]. Thus, further research is required in this population, across multiple age groups, to ensure appropriate interventions are implemented to minimize the risk of LEA.

Implement strategies to promote more optimal dietary behaviours to help ensure that HPYS players consume sufficient energy intakes to meet their energy requirements. Aim to identify scenarios which pose a significant threat to the energy demands of HPYS players e.

and encourage increased energy and carbohydrate intakes around these periods. Seek to understand the various enablers and barriers to achieving optimal dietary intake in HPYS players and develop appropriate interventions where necessary. Areta JL, Burke LM, Ross ML, Camera DM, West DWD, Broad EM, Jeacocke NA, Moore DR, Stellingwerff T, Phillips SM.

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Ann Hum Biol. Braun H, von Andrian-Werburg J, Schänzer W, Thevis M. Structure and programming get long term results when used in parallel and conjunction with discovery, fun. Bottom line, if the kids are not having fun and getting results, then they will not continue with the programs.

By definition the Block model is less flexible and less adaptable. Contrary to what you state it actually has very little focus on retaining loads as it recognises that elite level athletes gain little from one session in isolation.

The block model essentially relies on overreaching and intensively training one motor function at a time, as this is the only way highly trained athletes can improve their already impressive levels of performance. Bompas model on the other hand employs a number of different focuses throughout a training week.

This could easily be adapted to the young athlete as a coach could recognise that on a particular day for example maximal strength would not be an appropriate focus but mobility might. This flexibility is not present in the block model.

I am stating this fact not to split hairs but to encourage further understanding in this important area. Young Athlete by Toby Brooks, PhD, ATC, CSCS, PES, YFS3. Andrew McLean says:. September 9, at pm.

David says:. Toby B. September 13, at am. Adam Lee says:. September 13, at pm. October 4, at pm. Comment using: IYCA. Click here to cancel reply. Name required. Mail will not be published required.

Cathleen is an AFAA-Certified Group Exercise Instructor, NSCA-Certified Personal Trainer, ACE-Certified Health Coach, former competitive bodybuilder and freelance writer. She is employed at the Jewish Community Center in St.

Louis, MO. Cathleen has been involved in the fitness industry for over three decades. Feel free to contact her at [email protected]. She welcomes your feedback and your comments!

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Introduction: There has been an abundance of dietary analysis research Nutritional periodization for youth athletes on adult male soccer Blackberry cheesecake recipe, while periodizagion on youth youthh are lacking. Furthermore, the daily distribution Fat distribution and exercise energy and macronutrient intake throughout the day has been reported preiodization influence training adaptations, pegiodization this is often not considered in the literature. This study aims to quantify daily energy and macronutrient intake and assess their distribution over 5 days, and compare daily energy intakes and predicted daily energy expenditure in under male soccer players. Methods: The sample included 25 soccer participants aged Intake was analyzed for total daily energy, macronutrient intakes, and distribution among meals breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks. Daily energy expenditure was predicted by resting energy expenditure and physical activity levels developed for youth sports participants.

Author: JoJojas

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