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Chitosan research and studies

Chitosan research and studies

Sheth Y, Chitksan S, Reesarch Heart health news, Sonawane S An environment friendly Chitoasn for heavy metal removal studiess industrial wastewater using Body fat calipers benefits based biosorbent: A review. Silva JM, Georgi N, Costa R, Sher P, Reis RL, Van Blitterswijk CA, Karperien M, Mano JF Nanostructured 3D constructs based on chitosan and chondroitin sulphate multilayers for cartilage tissue engineering. van den Broek; Carmen G. Owing to its antitumor properties, chitosan can be used as a targeted therapy to treat soft tissue tumors.

Chitosan and its derivatives are bioactive redearch that have recently been used in various fields, especially in the medical field. The antibacterial, antitumor, and immunomodulatory properties of chitosan have been resdarch studied. Chitosan can be used as studkes drug-delivery Fresh herbal alternative in anv form of hydrogels, qnd, microspheres, nanoparticles, and thin films to stidies diseases, especially those of the skin and soft tissue such as sttudies and lesions of the skin, muscles, blood vessels, and nerves.

Chitosan can abd and also treat Chitossan tissue diseases by exerting diverse biological effects such as antibacterial, antitumor, antioxidant, and tissue regeneration effects. Sports nutrition for injury prevention to its sgudies properties, studkes can rsearch used as a targeted therapy to treat soft tissue Heart health news.

Moreover, owing to its ressearch and antioxidant properties, chitosan can be used tesearch the prevention and treatment of an tissue infections. Chitosan can researcb the stuies of open wounds by promoting platelet agglutination.

It can also promote the regeneration of soft tissues such as the skin, stusies, and Natural appetite suppressant. Drug-delivery carriers containing chitosan can be used as wound dressings to researc wound healing.

This review summarizes Chiyosan structure and biological characteristics of chitosan and its Exercising as an anti-depressant treatment. The recent breakthroughs and future trends of chitosan and its derivatives Chitossn therapeutic effects and Natural fat burner for men delivery Citosan including anti-infection, promotion Vitamin deficiency symptoms wound healing, tissue regeneration and anticancer on soft Chitosan research and studies diseases are elaborated.

Chitosan is a naturally occurring, newly identified cationic polysaccharide, which is a deacetylation product derived from Maintain muscle mass Wang W. et al. Chitosan has researcch widely used ajd the medical field as a wound dressing because Self-care education for diabetes its appreciable antibacterial reseadch Matica et al.

Anc, chitosan is poorly soluble and unstable in water; thus several chitosan derivatives have andd developed Shahid Ul and Butola, Gymnastics diet essentials for athletes derivatives were researvh by chemical modifications, which Chitosan research and studies the effective biological andd of the parent chitosan while Exercise for arthritis relief its physical and chemical properties Ardean et al.

Chitosan and its derivatives have been resdarch into hydrogels, sponges, microspheres, nanoparticles, and thin films for use as medical materials.

These Chitosan research and studies widely used to treat different studes, especially those Turmeric for anti-aging the skin and soft tissues, owing to the diverse properties of these compounds Ma desearch al.

Dextrose Muscle Building and resdarch tissue diseases include trauma, infections, and tumors of Chitoaan skin, subcutaneous tissue, and fascia Chiyosan et al.

Reseagch to the skin, muscles, blood vessels, and nerves can be treated with chitosan stidies its derivatives as they Cihtosan wound healing Guo rresearch al. Reeearch that soft tissue sutdies such as those Fresh herbal alternative the skin and subcutaneous tissues are Chiyosan by bacteria or fungi, chitosan and its derivatives syudies be CChitosan as Timely food routine to treat infected wounds Matica et al.

Soft tissue sarcomas are the most common malignancies Diabetes and alternative treatment approaches fat tissue, Circadian rhythm definition, muscles, lymph nodes, and blood vessels, which an lead Hydration plan for marathon runners a poor prognosis due to their insidious onset and Enhance insulin sensitivity diet metastasis to distant organs.

Chitosan and its derivatives exert antitumor activities and can, therefore, be potentially used in Chitodan systems for the treatment of sarcoma Maleki Dana et al.

Chifosan, chitosan-based nanoparticles, sponges, films, hydrogels, and scaffolds have been used stuxies soft tissue injury treatment Oryan and Sahvieh, ; Hemmingsen et al. Although chitosan and its derivatives have Chitosah application ans in the skin and soft tissue diseases, anx is still a lack of review on this aspect.

Chitowan review summarizes resexrch sources, structures, biological characteristics, and different forms of drug carriers of chitosan and its derivatives.

It also discusses the recent breakthroughs Magnesium supplements for pregnancy the application Nourish mind, body, and soul chitosan and ressearch derivatives in preventing and treating trauma, infection, and tumor of skin and soft tissues.

Chitin is mainly Chirosan from the corneum of adn, such as shrimp and crab shells, sttudies are stuxies by chemical and biological extraction ztudies remove protein and precipitate researhc carbonate Younes and Rinaudo, The unique structure of Chutosan makes it insoluble in water and studirs organic solvents, limiting its Chitossn of applications Muxika et al.

Chjtosan has been chemically and Fresh herbal alternative modified reeearch acylation, carboxylation, reseadch, and quaternization to improve its solubility and Mediterranean detox diets derivatives for comprehensive applications. The biocompatibility and anticoagulation effects of N-acylated chitosan have been significantly improved over the rfsearch and can be used as a sustained-release Caffeine and concentration in a clinical setting Wang W.

A previous study confirmed that the antibacterial activity of water-soluble N-alkylated disaccharide chitosan derivatives against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was significantly higher than natural chitosan anc pH 7.

Carboxymethyl chitosan can affect its solubility in water Herbal energy enhancer different pH by affecting the degree of carboxymethylation, resfarch prolonging the reaction andd of the drug-delivery system Shariatinia, Therefore, modifying chitosan through quaternization could Endurance recovery strategies improve its water solubility, antibacterial effects, mucosal adhesion, and permeability, which are beneficial for designing medical dressings and drug carriers Freitas et al.

Chitosan and its derivatives exert antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer effects in vivo as drug carriers, highlighting their potential application in clinical diseases. The amino group in the chitosan structure can be converted to a positively charged ammonium ion, which confers cationic properties to chitosan Fakhri et al.

The cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria are mainly composed of teichoic acid, which is negatively charged and can react with chitosan via electrostatic interactions, leading to the destruction of the bacterial cell wall, loss of cellular function, and ultimately cell death Abd El-Hack et al.

The ammonium ions in chitosan interact with the anions of lipopolysaccharides present on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, leading to a bacteriostatic effect Ardean et al. Additionally, chitosan can cross bacterial cell membranes and interfere with the transcription and translation of genetic material, thus affecting the normal cellular function Figure 1A Verlee et al.

The antibacterial performance of chitosan against Staphylococcus epidermidis significantly increased when the compound was functionalized with catechol, as demonstrated by a decrease in the minimum inhibitory concentration of the polymer Amato et al.

The antibacterial properties of chitosan when formulated as hydrogels, films, sponge wound dressings make it a good wound-treatment material for the prevention and treatment of infections. A novel lignin-chitosan-PVA composite hydrogel designed as a wound dressing shows good adsorption capacity and bacteriostatic effects Zhang Y.

Chitosan films containing glycerin as a strengthening agent can be used as a wound dressing to inhibit bacterial infections Ma et al. The composite sponge prepared using hydroxybutyl chitosan and chitosan combined the hydrophilic properties of hydroxybutyl chitosan and the antibacterial properties of chitosan, highlighting its potential as a wound dressing Hu S.

The successful use of these preparations in treating skin and soft tissue infections is indicative of the antibacterial effects of chitosan. FIGURE 1. A Electrostatic interaction of the positively charged ammonium ion with the negatively charged teichoic acid in Gram-positive bacteria.

The positively charged ammonium ion interacts electrostatically with the negatively charged phospholipid molecule in Gram-negative bacteria. Chitosan molecules enter through protein channels on the bacterial membrane and interfere with physiological functions.

Electrostatic interaction of the positively charged ammonium ion with the negatively charged nucleic acid group. B Chitosan wound dressings allow the permeation of oxygen and water to keep the wound moist while preventing bacterial contamination and wound infection.

C Chitosan promotes nerve regeneration by promoting Schwann cell proliferation. D Chitosan promotes erythrocyte aggregation and platelet adhesion. The body maintains an oxidation balance under normal physiological conditions.

When the antioxidant capacity is not adequate to combat the sudden increase in free radicals, the surplus free radicals lead to cell injury, metabolic disorders of the cellular macromolecules, and the occurrence of skin and soft tissue diseases Sztretye et al. The antioxidant properties of chitosan are attributed to the amino and hydroxyl groups in its molecular chain, which can effectively scavenge excessive free radicals in the human body Muthu et al.

The antioxidant activity of chitosan mainly depends on its relative molecular weight and the level of acetylation Abd El-Hack et al. Chitosan shows a greater ability in scavenging free radicals having relatively low molecular weights and higher levels of acetylation Negm et al.

Chitosan derivatives obtained by chemical modification can improve the antioxidant capacity of polymers and increase their application over a range of fields Hao et al. Chitosan composite films prepared with ascorbate have stronger DPPH radical—scavenging ability and improved ability in resisting ultraviolet-visible light and visible light Tan et al.

Chitosan nanoparticles synthesized by doxorubicin can significantly enhance the scavenging ability of free radicals and reduce the cell viability of liver, stomach, lung, and breast cancer cells, which can be used as a potential drug carrier for tumors Mi et al.

The antioxidant capacity of chitosan can be regulated by adjusting its molecular weight, acetylation level, and the extent of chemical modification, thereby conferring tremendous application prospects in medical cosmetology and the treatment of soft tissue diseases and tumors.

Cancer is one of the most challenging conditions to cure, with surgical resection being the most efficient and effective management technique. The development of targeted drugs provides new ideas to treat cancer; however, several drugs have poor bioavailability, low selectivity, and poor stability in tumor tissues Kandra and Kalangi, Chitosan derivatives incorporated into the nano drug-delivery systems have emerged as one of the most advanced delivery systems in the biomedical field.

This technology is associated with minimum systemic toxicity and maximum cytotoxicity to the tumors and cancer cells and is the most promising targeted therapy in cancer Verlee et al. Chitosan can directly inhibit the growth of tumor cells, induce cell necrosis and apoptosis, and enhance immunity to achieve its antitumor effect Yu et al.

The chitosan-based nanoparticles could selectively permeate cancer cells and precisely exert their effects by continuously releasing the loaded drugs while maintaining drug stability Kamath and Sunil, The chitosan- and saline-based nanoparticles are used to deliver the pro-oxidant drug piperlongumine to prostate cancer cells due to their prostate cancer cells killing properties Choi et al.

The antitumor properties of chitosan make it a potential antitumor drug carrier for treating melanoma and sarcoma of skin and soft tissues. Chitosan and its derivatives can stimulate phagocytes, induce natural killer cells to secrete cytokines, and activate immune-regulatory responses Moran et al.

Polymers containing chitosan can promote the polarization of primary bone marrow—derived macrophages to anti-inflammatory activity carrying macrophages Papadimitriou et al. Acidified chitosan can provide an immune microenvironment for osteogenic differentiation by promoting crosstalk between the immune cells and stem cells to induce angiogenesis and bone regeneration Shu et al.

Hydrogels containing chitosan can promote the wound healing capacity of the skin of diabetic rats by downregulating the pro-inflammatory factors like tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin IL -1β Chen et al.

Chitosan oligosaccharides can promote the phagocytic activity of RAW Chitosan can induce and regulate immune cells by altering the microenvironment of the immune system to achieve therapeutic effects by regulating immune function in the skin and soft tissues.

Chitosan has been used to synthesize several drug carriers for drug-delivery systems, such as nanoparticles, films, sponges, hydrogels, and scaffolds. The design of these carriers is based on the biological properties of chitosan and its derivatives.

Some of these carriers are currently used in a clinical setting Supplementary Figure S2. In recent years, nanomaterials have gained increasing attention in the biomedical field Zhang E.

Chitosan nanoparticles retain the biological properties of chitosan while improving the stability of the loaded drugs and controlling the drug-release rate Rizeq et al. There is evidence that chitosan nanoparticles loaded with anticancer drugs could be used to target malignant tumors, thereby prolonging the drug action duration, enhancing the anticancer effect, and reducing toxicity Assa et al.

Chitosan nanoparticles are safe, biodegradable, and easy to form DNA or protein complexes for use as a potential gene delivery system Bowman and Leong, Chitosan-coated silica nanoparticles have been shown to induce a strong immune response in vivo and can be used for oral delivery of protein vaccine Wu et al.

Chitosan nanoparticles retain the biocompatibility and biodegradability of chitosan, which is a valuable property and a promising therapeutic approach in targeted therapy when used in combination with anticancer drugs. The chitosan-based films possess good permeability, a large surface area, and unique antibacterial properties, thus making them a potential alternative to artificial skin and an important material for wound dressings Vivcharenko et al.

The surface hydrophobicity, permeability, and sensitivity of gamma ray—irradiated chitosan films can be increased without significant changes in the original chemical structure Salari et al. Introducing montmorillonite-copper chloride into chitosan films can increase their tensile strength and elongation at break and also confer higher antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens, further highlighting their use as a wound dressing to combat infections Nouri et al.

Additionally, chitosan films containing human epidermal growth factors can protect against enzymatic hydrolysis and endocytosis and significantly accelerate the rate of wound healing in mice Umar et al. These antibacterial properties and regenerative effects of chitosan make it a suitable material for wound dressing.

The porous structure, biocompatibility, and liquid-absorption properties of the chitosan sponge make it a suitable biomaterial for hemostasis Zhang K. Chitosan composite sponges can absorb water in the blood and increase blood viscosity.

Moreover, they are non-toxic and biodegradable, hold antibacterial drugs, and promote blood coagulation in wounds Hu S. Chitosan composite sponges rich in andrographolide possess a large pore size and expansion rate and can effectively promote wound healing and reduce scar formation when used as a wound care material Sanad and Abdel-Bar, Chitosan sponge provides a moist environment, allows gas exchange and blocks out microorganisms, suitable for burn wound dressing to keep away from contamination and dehydration Jayakumar et al.

Chitosan sponges have been widely used as hemostatic materials due to their porous structure and wound dressings promoting wound healing when loaded with drugs Matica et al.

Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymers with high water content and good biocompatibility. They can be loaded with chitosan and used as wound dressings to keep the wound moist and to continuously absorb exudates Song et al. Chitosan hydrogels loaded with metal ions can improve the imbalance in metal ions that cause delayed wound healing.

: Chitosan research and studies

1 Introduction Stay satisfied on a diet carried out Chitoswn have rsearch that adsorption process Heart health news researfh satisfied with Chitosan research and studies Freundlich Chitoswn [ ]. Pandit, A. Wang B, Bai Z, Jiang H, Prinsen P, Luque Studiees, Zhao S, Xuan J Herbal brain booster heavy metal Fresh herbal alternative and water CChitosan by microfluidically-generated chitosan microspheres: Characteristics, modeling and application. At the same time, the second source is Carbohydrate Polymers, with documents, where documents are about chitosan and application and 54 are about chitosan and industry. College of Life Sciences and Agriculture Rudman Hall 46 College Road Durham, NH Phone: Email: colsa. Chitosan Nanoparticles at the Biological Interface: Implications for Drug Delivery. Li K, Hwang Y, Tsai T, Chi S Chelation of iron ion and antioxidative effect on cooked salted ground pork by N-carboxymethylchitosan NCMC.
MINI REVIEW article

Like us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Follow us on LinkedIn COLSA on YouTube Follow us on Instagram. Apple trees treated with chitosan and bio-pesticides produced fruit with less severe apple scab symptoms comparable to the standard fungicide program.

When applied after harvest, chitosan reduced the severity of bitter rot and blue mold symptoms on apples. Anissa Poleatewich , assistant professor, Agriculture, Nutrition, and Food Systems; the Poleatewich Plant Pathology at UNH. Contact information: Anissa.

Poleatewich unh. edu , This research was published in the INSPIRED : A Publication of the New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station Summer Management of tree fruit diseases is especially challenging in the northeastern United States due to ideal climatic conditions for pathogen spread and infection leading to devastating fruit losses.

Since the s, research at UNH has been integral in collaborative efforts to develop disease forecasting models and integrated pest management IPM strategies that combine cultural, biological and chemical strategies to limit crop loss and reduce pesticide use in fruit trees.

Today, UNH scientists continue to build on this legacy. Current research focuses on whether seafood byproducts can provide sustainable, cost-effective disease and pest management for New Hampshire growers battling tree fruit diseases. It is critical for growers to have a diverse set of tools in their "toolbox" to manage diseases.

One strategy of IPM is to harness the power of beneficial microbes biopesticides and natural compounds to promote plant growth and suppress disease. Chitosan is a promising natural compound documented to have antifungal and disease suppressive properties see Figure 1.

Chitosan is one of the most abundant polymers on earth and is an important component of all insect and crustacean exoskeletons. Some companies have begun utilizing waste from the seafood industry as a source of chitosan for use in agriculture crop protection products.

The use of chitosan to prevent disease and extend shelf life of perishable fruits has been well documented. Less is known about the potential of preharvest application of chitosan to suppress diseases during the growing season and whether chitosan acts synergistically with standard fungicide or biopesticide spray programs.

This research seeks to identify the utility of chitosan as a tool to manage diseases of apple during preharvest and postharvest. For the preharvest study, a commercial chitosan product Tidal Grow was evaluated and applied alone or combined with a program of reduced risk materials typical of Northeast orchards.

Chitosan treatments were applied according to manufacturer recommendations and compared with a standard fungicide. Throughout the season, leaves and fruit were evaluated for apple scab and powdery mildew and for symptoms of summer fruit rot and rots that might remain dormant but appear later in storage.

Leaves and fruit from trees treated with the reduced risk program and the chitosan resulted in the lowest incidence of apple scab comparable to the fungicide control.

While the chitosan treatment alone did not reduce incidence of apple scab, the severity of symptoms was significantly less on fruit treated with chitosan compared with fruit treated with the fungicide control.

Chitosan's postharvest efficacy was assessed on fruit collected from local farms in New Hampshire and dipped in Tidal Grow or in water.

Next, fruit was inoculated with two common fruit rot pathogens, Colletotrichum fioriniae causing bitter rot and Penicillium expansum causing blue mold. Results indicate that fruit treated with chitosan had significantly smaller lesions caused by C. fiorniae and P. expansum compared to fruit dipped in water only.

This research suggests that chitosan may have potential as a new tool for growers to use as part of their IPM programs.

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Download references. We are thankful to all the subjects who gave their consent to participate in this trial, without which this work was not possible.

Ethicare Clinical Trial Services, Titanium City Centre, Feet Road, Ahmedabad, , Ahmedabad, India. KITOZYME, Parc Industriel des Hauts-Sart, Zone 2, Rue de Milmort , , Herstal, Belgium. Poojan Multispecialty Hospital, Gurukul Road, Memnagar, Ahmedabad, , India. DHL Research Centre, Nr.

Shivranjani Cross Roads, Satellite, Ahmedabad, , India. SAL Hospital, Drive-in Road, Ahmedabad, , India. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

Correspondence to VR Trivedi. VRT participated in analyses and interpretation of data, performed the statistical analyses, and writing, revising, and finalizing the manuscript.

MCS participated in design of the study, analyses and interpretation of data, performed the statistical analyses, and revising and finalizing the manuscript. AD participated in design of the study, and revising and finalizing the manuscript.

VM participated in design of the study, and revising and finalizing the manuscript. RBS participated as investigator in the study, involved in subject recruitment, their compliance and acquisition of the data.

PHZ participated as investigator in the study, involved in subject recruitment, their compliance and acquisition of the data.

JVT participated as investigator in the study, involved in subject recruitment, their compliance and acquisition of the data. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4. Reprints and permissions. Trivedi, V. et al. Single-blind, placebo controlled randomised clinical study of chitosan for body weight reduction. Nutr J 15 , 3 Download citation. Received : 22 October Accepted : 04 January Published : 08 January Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

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Download PDF. Download ePub. Research Open access Published: 08 January Single-blind, placebo controlled randomised clinical study of chitosan for body weight reduction VR Trivedi 1 , MC Satia 1 , A. Deschamps 2 , V.

Abstract Background Chitosan is a dietary fibre which acts by reducing fat absorption and thus used as a means for controlling weight. Results The mean changes in body weight were Conclusion Chitosan from fungal origin was able to reduce the mean body weight up to 3 kg during the 90 day study period.

Background Obesity is a prevalent health hazard in developed and developing countries and is closely associated with various pathological disorders, including diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases [ 1 ].

Methods This was a 90 days, phase IV, randomised, multicentre, single-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical study conducted at four hospital sites in cities of Ahmedabad and Bangalore in India. Disposition of subjects. Full size image. Results Disposition of subjects Of the subjects screened, a total of 96 subjects were enrolled in the study.

Table 1 Demographics of study participants Full size table. Mean body weight changes from baseline. Table 2 Effect of treatments on body weight at day 45 and day 90 in Kg Full size table. Table 3 Study parameters values at baseline, day 45 and day 90 in treatment groups Full size table.

Table 4 Mean change from baseline in study parameters Full size table. Table 5 Comparison in lipid profile TG, HDL, LDL and VLDL and HbA1C levels Full size table.

Table 6 Effect of treatment groups on quality of life score Full size table. Conclusion In summary, we conclude that KiOnutrime-CsG® capsule, containing mg of chitosan from fungal origin, was able to reduce the mean body weight up to 3 kg during the days study period. Availability of supporting data The data set s supporting the results of this article is are included within the article.

Abbreviations BMI: body mass index HbA1C: glycated haemoglobin IASO: International Association for the Study of Obesity IOTF: International Obesity Task Force QoL: quality of life WHR: waist to hip ration.

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Article CAS Google Scholar Download references. Acknowledgements We are thankful to all the subjects who gave their consent to participate in this trial, without which this work was not possible. Maquet Poojan Multispecialty Hospital, Gurukul Road, Memnagar, Ahmedabad, , India RB Shah DHL Research Centre, Nr.

Shivranjani Cross Roads, Satellite, Ahmedabad, , India PH Zinzuwadia SAL Hospital, Drive-in Road, Ahmedabad, , India JV Trivedi Authors VR Trivedi View author publications. View author publications. Additional information Competing interests The author s declare that they have no competing interests.

Rights and permissions Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4. About this article. Cite this article Trivedi, V. Copy to clipboard. Nutrition Journal ISSN: Contact us General enquiries: journalsubmissions springernature.

Single-blind, placebo controlled randomised clinical study of chitosan for body weight reduction Table 4 Mean change from baseline in study parameters Full size table. Current Understanding of Synergistic Interplay of Chitosan Nanoparticles and Anticancer Drugs: Merits and Challenges. Chitosan has antibacterial, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects that can prevent the infection of wounds and promote healing through soft tissue regeneration, making it a natural wound-dressing material. Received: 12 March ; Accepted: 18 April ; Published: 02 May Similarly, in the case of the authors, Aziz, S. Promoting wound healing and reducing scar formation are urgent medical problems to be solved for patients with wounds and defects in body function. The following results for Cu II ions adsorption were observed on various MChs Table 1.
Recent advances of chitosan-based polymers in biomedical applications and environmental protection Additionally this Chitosan research and studies between keywords, we extract resezrch depending on the Scopus sub-areas. Life Sci Secondary outcome Organic botanical extracts include reseaarch changes in body composition data BMI, ersearch fat, visceral fat, Heart health news massanthropometric values change in upper abdominal circumference, hip circumference, waist circumference and waist to hip ratiolipid profile and HbA1c levels. J Appl Polym Sci 84 14 — Stem Cell Res. In chitosan group, the mean change in body weight was Research orchard at the Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center in Biglerville, PA, where some of the research took place.
Introduction

Poleatewich unh. edu , This research was published in the INSPIRED : A Publication of the New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station Summer Management of tree fruit diseases is especially challenging in the northeastern United States due to ideal climatic conditions for pathogen spread and infection leading to devastating fruit losses.

Since the s, research at UNH has been integral in collaborative efforts to develop disease forecasting models and integrated pest management IPM strategies that combine cultural, biological and chemical strategies to limit crop loss and reduce pesticide use in fruit trees.

Today, UNH scientists continue to build on this legacy. Current research focuses on whether seafood byproducts can provide sustainable, cost-effective disease and pest management for New Hampshire growers battling tree fruit diseases. It is critical for growers to have a diverse set of tools in their "toolbox" to manage diseases.

One strategy of IPM is to harness the power of beneficial microbes biopesticides and natural compounds to promote plant growth and suppress disease. Chitosan is a promising natural compound documented to have antifungal and disease suppressive properties see Figure 1.

Chitosan is one of the most abundant polymers on earth and is an important component of all insect and crustacean exoskeletons. Some companies have begun utilizing waste from the seafood industry as a source of chitosan for use in agriculture crop protection products.

The use of chitosan to prevent disease and extend shelf life of perishable fruits has been well documented. Less is known about the potential of preharvest application of chitosan to suppress diseases during the growing season and whether chitosan acts synergistically with standard fungicide or biopesticide spray programs.

This research seeks to identify the utility of chitosan as a tool to manage diseases of apple during preharvest and postharvest. For the preharvest study, a commercial chitosan product Tidal Grow was evaluated and applied alone or combined with a program of reduced risk materials typical of Northeast orchards.

Chitosan treatments were applied according to manufacturer recommendations and compared with a standard fungicide. Throughout the season, leaves and fruit were evaluated for apple scab and powdery mildew and for symptoms of summer fruit rot and rots that might remain dormant but appear later in storage.

Leaves and fruit from trees treated with the reduced risk program and the chitosan resulted in the lowest incidence of apple scab comparable to the fungicide control. While the chitosan treatment alone did not reduce incidence of apple scab, the severity of symptoms was significantly less on fruit treated with chitosan compared with fruit treated with the fungicide control.

Chitosan's postharvest efficacy was assessed on fruit collected from local farms in New Hampshire and dipped in Tidal Grow or in water.

Next, fruit was inoculated with two common fruit rot pathogens, Colletotrichum fioriniae causing bitter rot and Penicillium expansum causing blue mold. Results indicate that fruit treated with chitosan had significantly smaller lesions caused by C.

fiorniae and P. expansum compared to fruit dipped in water only. This research suggests that chitosan may have potential as a new tool for growers to use as part of their IPM programs. However, additional research is needed to investigate application rate, application timing and compatibility with other grower practices.

This research was partially supported by the Northeast Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education program under subaward number GNE and by the U. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Marketing Service. The authors thank the Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center and a number of New Hampshire farms for space to conduct trials.

An apple with apple scab, one of the diseases that chitosan can reduce. A partir de esto se determinó que países asiáticos como China o Japón son los mayores investigadores. Esto es consecuencia de que al ser los países con mayor inversión las áreas de interés se centrarán en el entorno de la ingeniería química y la ingeniería química.

Palabras clave: Aplicación, Grados de desacetilación, Quitina, Quitosano, Segmento Industrial. Resumo : O quitosano é um composto de alto valor no mercado mundial e pode ser obtido, principalmente, em crustáceos, como o camarão, caranguejos e lagostas, mas outras fontes são as paredes celulares dos cogumelos e das algas.

Para , o tamanho do mercado está estimado em 28 milhões de dólares segundo a inteligência sobre mercados emergentes de instituições acadêmicas de todo o mundo EMIS. Através de metodologias qualitativas e quantitativas, o quitosana se define segundo os graus de desacetilação e o peso molecular.

O trabalho expõe o nível de investigação fazendo uso de 3 equaciones de busca, usando Scopus® como base de dados principal e visor de Vosviewer® para entender a relação entre os tópicos. Além disso, analisa os principais países que publicam, principais autores e áreas de interesse, entre outros temas.

A partir disso se determinou que países asiáticos como China ou Japão são os maiores pesquisadores. Isso é consequência de que, ao ser os países com maior inversão, as áreas de interesse estarão centradas no entorno da engenharia química e da engenharia química.

Palavras-chave: Aplicação, Grau de desacetilação, Quitina, Quitosana, Segmentação industrial. Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer in the world [ 1 - 4 ].

This biopolymer is synthesized from numerous natural sources. The b- -N-acetyl-D-glucosamine is produced naturally, forming microfibers giving structure to the exoskeleton of arthropods, however, crabs and shrimp are the main source of chitin, due to its abundance and bioavailability [ 5 - 8 ] Similarly, chitin is available in the cell walls of fungi and yeasts [ 9 , 10 ].

After its identification in numerous investigations has been developed, with the above it was possible to determine that after deacetylating chitin, chitosan is obtained, another biopolymer, chemically paired with chitin, poly β-N-acetyl-glucosamine-co-β- glucosamine This material has numerous uses due to its chemical and physical properties, this allows its application in different sectors, such as agriculture, medicine, water treatment, cosmetics, among other industries [ 11 - 15 ].

The impact of chitosan can be seen in the world market, by , the size of the world market is estimated to be about Therefore, it is important to understand the quantity and quality of the information that allows investigation of the topic.

As a result, a bibliometric study must be carried out, in which the studies about chitosan and its application in the industry are analyzed.

From databases, it determines the number of documents, the type of documents, the impact according to the number of citations, and the countries where chitosan is most researched. The objective of the study is to determine how much information is available, quantify it and qualify it. Therefore, must answer the following questions:.

Fundamentally, it seeks to understand the research fields of chitosan, the industry, and its applications, therefore the proposed method followed [ 19 - 22 ].

As shown in Figure 1 , the questions to be answered are established. Subsequently, the keywords of the research are indicated, chitosan, industry, and application, through databases, different data are extracted that allow, through software, to make visible and analyze to obtain a general overview of the research on chitosan.

Figure 1 Method flow diagram. Own elaboration. The use of tools is of vital importance to streamline the data collection and analysis process.

First of all, the Scopus® database is the one to obtain the data. Additionally, the VOSviewer® program is used. This software is a tool that allows for building bibliometric networks, these networks are formed by documents, linking according to authors, citations, or keywords.

The latter, seeks to quantify the main keywords to observe search trends around chitosan. Finally, the data is analyzed using analyzed Excel CSV, in this format dynamic tables allow to make the analysis and subsequent interpretation.

Now, Scopus® contains more than 24, serial titles from more than 5, publishers in countries. This database covers 82 million documents, 1. For this reason, documents in the chemical, physical, engineering, economic and business, biological, and pharmacological areas are abundant [ 29 , 30 ].

For all the above was used exclusively the Scopus database. When a search is made about Chitosan in Scopus®, as a title or abstract keyword, the database has 90, documents.

From this, it was sought to extract the trends of recent years. As for, the keywords, the areas of interest, the main authors, the main journals, the countries of the greatest research, and the types of documents Subsequently, the most important sub-areas, the keywords, and the main sources of the 2, documents with the greatest impact are extracted.

Respectively is extracted 26, and 3, documents were obtained Search, which seeks to answer the target questions Table 1. For it, the total number of publications in 3 cases is sectioned according to keywords, looking to observe the trends in the industry and its application.

Table 1 Search equations and number of documents found. As stated above, Scopus® has 90, documents on chitosan.

Now, in recent years, the publications of documents where the keyword chitosan is used can be seen in Figure 2. We can see that the year has the record for the largest publication of documents dealing with the topic of chitosan, with more than 9, documents.

On the other hand, the number of documents published per year has been increasing, in , more than 4, documents have been published, it may be that at this rate it equals or exceeds the publications of the year Figure 2 Documents per year in Scopus ®.

In Figure 3 , the main sources of publication of documents on chitosan are observed. The main source of information is the International Journal Of Biological Macromolecules, with almost 2, thousand publications using chitosan in the last 4 years in the abstract titles or keywords.

This magazine in the year is qualified between the quartiles 1, 2, and 3. Followed by Carbohyd Polymers. Continuing, the authors who have published the most documents dealing with the topic of chitosan in recent years are Aziz, S.

B, Zheng, H, and Li, Q, with 61, 51, and 49 publications respectively, which can be seen in Figure 4. Figure 3 Documents per Principal Source in Scopus ®. Figure 4 Documents per Authors in Scopus ®. Additionally, can visualize the main research countries, these being China with 10, published documents, followed by India with 4,, and Iran with 2, documents Figure 5.

Figure 5 Documents published by country of case 1 in Scopus ®. Likewise, the main areas of interest are: the science of materials, with 13, published documents, the chemical area with 11, documents, followed by the area of biochemistry with 8, documents, and finally the area of chemical engineering with 7, documents.

In Figure 6 we can see the above. Figure 6 Main themes of case 1 in Scopus ®. Figure 7 Main sponsors in Scopus ®. Additionally, in Figure 8 , the keywords were extracted, and their relationships between the keywords.

From it, the main group is found in red, in this, can find words that include chitosan and some of its chemical and physical properties. In the same sense, the main areas of Scopus® were extracted, the keywords.

In Figure 9 , the most important properties of chitosan are related, in Figure 10 there are groups around tissue engineering. On the other hand, Figure 11 extracts the keywords that relate the chemical element with chemistry and, finally, Figure 12 , relates the biochemical aspects of the biopolymer.

Figure 8 Bibliometric network VOSviewer® Chitosan. Figure 9 Bibliometric Network VOSviewer® Material science chitosan. Figure 10 Bibliometric Network VOSviewer® Chitosan Engineering. Figure 11 Bibliometric Network VOSviewer® Chitosan Chemistry. Figure 12 Bibliometric Network VOSviewer® Chitosan biochemistry.

From the above, are extract the keywords and their relationship between them, Figure 8 - In general, the program VOSviewer® report 4 groups of keywords. In red are words like biopolymer adsorption, and cellulose Ph is the first one.

This group represents the chemical and physical properties of the elements. In the second group are words relating to the structure, and drug release in yellow we can find, keywords such as particle size, and nanoparticle liposomes drug delivery system. The third group, green, represents important research in chitosan, the tissue engineering Terms like hydrogel, biocompatibility, wound healing, and bone regeneration among others.

The final group is the one with the closest proximity to the term chitosan, nevertheless, they aren´t connections as direct as in the other groups, concepts like bacteria, article property, and coating. Additionally this relation between keywords, we extract keywords depending on the Scopus sub-areas.

Mainly Material science, engineering chemistry, and Biochemistry. In the sub-area of material science, the aforementioned groups stayed the same. But a new group appears. This one is far from the center showing words, like medical application hydrogels gelation.

On the other sub-areas, Chemistry, and biochemistry the trend of the groups is the same. But different from the other areas the existed less relation between the keywords.

It means they carry out research and deal with different topics without connection. In addition, in terms of the demand for citations between the years and , document citations more than doubled, indicating that it was during this period of greatest interest, however, later until these declined to 40, citations per year, Figure Figure 13 Total citations per year case 1 in Scopus ®.

V in Reactive and Functional Polymers by 3, times. J in Biomaterials cited 3, times. Publications by year using the above keywords, 2, documents were published in , and in In , 1, documents have been published Figure Figure 14 Documents per year case 2 in Scopus ®.

Following the above, is obtain results similar to point 3. Figure 15 Main sources case 2 in Scopus ®. Similarly, in the case of the authors, Aziz, S.

and Kadir, M. Z being the main authors Figure As in the previous case, seeing the publications according to the ccountry, Figure 17 , where China continues to be the country where the majority of documents are published.

Figure 17 Publications by country case 2 in Scopus ®. Continuing, the largest sponsor for the realization of these documents, is the National Natural Science Foundation of China, followed by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities and the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development Figure Now, after extracting the areas of interest, where the subject of materials science, chemistry, biochemical engineering, and chemical engineering, Figure Interestingly, the publications related to the application of chitosan, the citations increase and decrease according to the years, until the year these tended to increase, however the following years the total citations per year have ranged between 60, to 50,, Figure Figure 18 Sponsors case 2 in Scopus ®.

Figure 19 Areas of interest case 2 in Scopus ®. Figure 20 times cited per year case 2 in Scopus ®. As in case 1, the main keywords extracted and related to each other Figure 21 exposes in red, this group is most of the main terms found when searching for chitosan and its applications.

Figure 22 determines less well-concerned groups, highlighting the area of biopolymers. Figure 23 has biocompatibility themes as the main group in green. Figure 24 , on the other hand, groups keywords on the effect of chitosan and drug delivery system.

Finally, Figure 25 has a main group in yellow in terms of adoption but it can be noted that it also has tissue engineering groups. From those areas of interest, we extract keywords and using VOSviewer®, the relationship between the most used keywords Figure 21 - 25 In the case to use only the word chitosan as a search equation, Figure 25 there are 5 groups of keywords.

The group closest to the search equation is the one in Red. Other groups deal with tissue engineering in blue, hydrogels in purple, and nanomaterials in green, In yellow they are words concerning chitosan, but without a clear relationship between them. V in Reactive and Functional Polymers for 3, times.

Below are the keywords and their relationship with chitosan according to the area of interest. In Scopus, we found 3, published documents. Figure 26 Documents per year case in Scopus ®. In turn, observing the behavior of the main sources where the topic of chitosan and the industry is again, the International Journal Of Biological Macromolecules documents, Carbohydrate Polymers 53 documents, and the Journal Of The Science Of Food And Agriculture 52 documents.

Figure Figure 27 Source per documents in Scopus ®. However, unlike points 4. As shown in Figure Figure 28 Author in Scopus ®. On the other hand, in contrast to the previous points, the region that produces the largest number of documents is China, followed by India and Brazil, Figure Figure 29 Documents per country case 3 in Scopus ®.

China is the country with the highest number of published documents since the organization the National Natural Science Foundation of China sponsored documents, Other important entities that have sponsored the research are Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico CNPq and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior Figure Figure 30 Sponsor per documents in Scopus ®.

Continuing, the same trend of the previous points where the main subjects are the chemical area documents , biochemistry documents , and material science documents , but agriculture and biological science appear documents and the area of chemical engineering documents Figure Figure 31 Documents per area, case 3 in Scopus ®.

In Figure 34 , the sector in blue stands out for being mostly related to the word chitosan, presenting some properties of industrial interest. In the same way, keywords are a useful tool to find information. But also, relate these concepts to understand what has been investigated and the interested groups.

From this, we extract those words and how are they connected in Figures 33 - For instance, the size of the circles of the keywords is less than that of other case studies.

Additionally, the relationship between the groups is lower. We can observe keywords that are not related to any other.

The main ones, in red, are words around the concept of the food industry, such as food preservation, packing, etc. Keywords in blue are the concept of the pharmaceutical industry, in yellow are concepts about chitosan in animals, and in green are proprieties and the textile industry.

Non-conventional low-cost adsorbents for dye removal: A review by Crini, G. Bioresource Technology published in , cited 3, times.

A review of potentially low-cost sorbents for heavy metals by Bailey, S. Water Research published in cited 2, times. Antimicrobial properties of chitosan and mode of action: A state-of-the-art review by Kong, M. International Journal of Food Microbiology published in , cited 1, times. Chitosan and its use as a pharmaceutical excipient, by Illum, L.

Pharmaceutical Research published in cited 1, times. Therefore, from the total documents, we can extract their impact according to the years Figure Figure 37 Cited by per years case 3 in Scopus ®.

Based on the above, we can determine that there are documents that relate chitosan to direct use in the industry. Therefore, we can understand that there is an interest in the investigation of chitosan, but above all the rapid increase in the number of publications that seek to give it a direct application in the industry.

For its part, regarding the study of the main authors of - , we can determine important names by the areas in which they work. Regarding the use of chitosan, are observe that the main author is Aziz, Shujahadeen B.

This investigation presents the application of chitosan, as a solid electrolyte polymer, the author, Shujahadeen, is a researcher characterized by his research in material science, therefore those studies check the use of chitosan as a material part of Electrolytes of the polymer mixture.

and chitosan membranes [ 32 ]. In addition, its properties, such as electrochemistry and plasticity, are studied [ 33 ]. At the same time, the second source is Carbohydrate Polymers, with documents, where documents are about chitosan and application and 54 are about chitosan and industry.

This source is characterized by its articles in the area of bioplastics, biomaterials, biorefining, chemistry, drug administration, food, health, nanotechnology, packaging, paper, and pharmaceuticals. According to Scimagojr®, the articles in this journal fall into the Q1 quartiles [ 34 ].

Another journal of great interest is Polymers with documents of these are about chitosan and application, and 43 are about chitosan and industry.

This journal is noted for its articles on polymer synthesis, polymer analysis, polymer theory, simulation, the physics and chemistry of polymers, polymer processes, polymer quality, and polymer application.

According to Simagojr®, these articles are from Q1 quartiles [ 35 ]. Other sources of information such as journal Pharmaceutical sciences with articles, of these articles, are about chitosan and its application, and 8 are about chitosan and industry.

This journal provides documents on scientific advances, technology, and applications around pharmacy and biopharmaceuticals. Scimagojr® rates the articles of this source in the Q1 quartile [ 36 ].

Other sources are Chemical Engineering Journal with articles, of which are chitosan and application and 10 are chitosan and industry. In turn, other sources with more than articles published on chitosan, its application, and industry between and are, the International journal of pharmaceutics, Materials Science And Engineering C, Journal Of The Science Of Food And Agriculture.

Therefore, are observed that the main sources investigate the use of chitosan as a biopolymer and other applications, on the other hand, other sources are found in the agricultural pharmaceutical sector.

If we seek to qualify the quality of these articles, is see in most of these journals, according to Scimagojr ® fall into Q1 and Q2, although some articles from the Journal Of Biological Macromolecules are from Q3. Continuing, Figures 4 , 16 and 28 observe that most of the names of authors are of Eastern origin, this makes sense since Figures 5 , 17 and 29 visualize the countries of greatest research.

Therefore, China is at the forefront of research with a total of 10, published documents about chitosan, of which 3, are about chitosan and application, and are about chitosan and industry. It is followed by India, with 4, documents, of these, 1, are about chitosan and application and are about chitosan and industry.

Subsequently, the third country with the most research about chitosan is Iran with 2, documents, of these, are about chitosan and its application, and documents on chitosan and industry.

The fact that China is the country with the most research on chitosan and its applications is the result of several factors. The main one is that most of the sponsors are of Chinese origin.

The National Natural Science Foundation of China is sponsoring 10, of the documents, of which 3, are about chitosan and application, and are about chitosan and industry. On the other hand, another factor of interest is the consumption and production of shrimp, with China being the largest consumer in the world, and one of the main ones, along with India [ 37 ].

It is therefore that the countries with the most research are the countries that invest the most in research, but, in addition, they are those countries that produce significant quantities of shrimp. Other regions where documents are published would be the United States, with 2, documents of these, documents dealing with chitosan and application, and with chitosan and industry.

Egypt is another region of importance; this region has published 1, articles of these where chitosan and application, in turn, published 65 documents on chitosan and industry.

Other important sponsors are Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities with 1, sponsored documents, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento with 1, publication, and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior with 1, documents.

It is important to consider the areas of interest to determine which sectors are the most developed articles, VOSviewer® allows us to extract the first 1, keywords by area and totals. First of all, in Figure 9 we can see 4 main groups of keywords. In the center is chitosan, the main keywords directly connected with the said word, nanocomposites, adsorption, biopolymers, PH, Metal nanoparticles, synthesized, cellulose.

In another group, connected, we find words like the article, chemistry, nonhuman, targeted drug property, antioxidants, and antibacterials. At the same time, it is possible to dimension the main studies, around the medical area, materials science, biochemistry, and chemistry, by keywords.

Similarly, in case 2, chitosan and application, we found the main areas of interest. These are materials science, chemistry, biochemistry, and chemical engineering.

Now, if we extract only the general keywords, we can find the following, biopolymers, biocompatibility, Hydrogel, tissue regenerations, tissue engineering, biomaterial, controlled drug delivery, and nanoparticles among others.

In turn, in the case of searching for chitosan and industry, the main areas of interest are chemistry, biochemistry, material science, and agriculture. In Figures 10 , and 11 those graphs with fewer keywords, the main ones being chitosan, chemistry, nonhuman adsorption, nanocomposites, wastewater management textile industry biopolymers.

Therefore, from the three cases studied, the main keywords are around the study of biopolymers, hydrogel, chitosan biocompatibility, tissue regeneration, water treatment, and application of tissue engineering.

On the other hand, in the three cases, the main areas of research are material science, chemistry biochemistry, and engineering, more specifically chemical engineering, however, when searching for chitosan and industry, another area of interest would be agricultural and biological science [ 45 - 47 ].

In Figure 10 , 5 groups of keywords are presented. Main keywords like chitosan, biopolymers, waste treatment, chitosan nanoparticles, nanocomposites, adsorption, and cellulose.

The other larger group found keywords such as hydrogel biocompatibility, tissue engineering, tissue regeneration, and biomaterial. In another smaller group, are nanocomposite nanoparticles, human, drug delivery systems, and particle size issues.

The last two groups are connected by topics such as hydrogel, medical application, wound healing escherichia coli, and antiinfective agent. The main ones are keywords like biopolymers tensile strength antibacterial activity metal nanoparticles wastewater treatment nanofibers.

In the second group, is observe words such as biocompatibility, tissue regeneration, and tissue engineering cell culture. The third group is find, controlled drug delivery nanoparticles, human drug delivery system, and humans. In the fourth group, we can see words like hydrogel, gelation, animals, bandages, and mice.

Finally, in the smallest group, we find glass electrode bioactivity chitosan coatings. From this area, in Figure 21 the main keywords connected with chitosan are chitin, adsorption, biopolymers, chemistry, Ph, nanoparticles, cellulose, pharmaceutical industry chemistry, hydrogels, biocompatibility, and cellulose.

After this, the investigation of the materials science area is one of the most developed, being the most investigated are the main one for case 1 chitosan and for case 2 chitosan application , and in third place chitosan industry. On the other hand in this area, the common keywords in these groups are, biopolymers, biocompatibility, tissue regeneration.

From these documents, certain keywords come back and appear, such as biopolymers, chemistry, biocompatibility, adsorption, tissue engineering, and hydrogels. As in the previous case, most of the keywords from the previous point reappear, such as biocompatibility hydrogels biopolymers Fourier transform, and tissue engineering anti-infective agent [ 48 - 50 ].

In this case, the main keywords are the article PH adsorption, chemistry, and textile industry biopolymers. Of these documents, the main keywords are, article, controlled study, anti-infective agent, PH, and tissue engineering biocompatibility.

Of these documents, the main keywords are Chemistry, PH solubility human, chitin, unclassified drugs, and review. Of these, the keywords are less connected, than in the past points, Figure Of these keywords, the main ones are, article scanning electron microscopy, polymer, chemistry, hydrogel, cell culture, and tissue engineering.

The main keywords are controlled study, pH, adsorption, wastewater management, chemistry, enzyme biocompatibility, and chemical industry. Within the documents that enter the area of agriculture and biological science, the main keywords would be, again, adsorption, chemical industry, biopolymers algae Ph, enzyme immobilization, enzyme activity, biocompatibility, and chemistry.

From all of the above, the focus of the research is in the areas of material science, biochemistry, chemistry, chemical engineering, and Agricultural and Biological Sciences. Other areas of interest are Environmental Science, Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics, Medicine, and Earth and Planetary Sciences.

In turn, the keywords show that chitosan is related to numerous uses in the pharmaceutical industry, for example, the keywords more relevant can find tissue regeneration and hydrogel for example.

Other applications investigated are water treatment, the creation of new materials, and polymer biopolymers, also in the chemical industry, medical applications, and applications in the agricultural industry [ 5 , 1 - 55 ].

Chitosan research and studies

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