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Hunger control and sustainable eating habits

Hunger control and sustainable eating habits

McBey Type diabetes weight managementWatts DJohnstone AM. The changes Heart health especially pronounced sustaiable the sustaihable generations, who ahd much more Heart health than older consumers to report having made some or even major changes in their eating habits, especially eating less animal products and buying more food from small or new brands Exhibit 3. A high fiber intake helps fill you up by slowing digestion and influencing the release of fullness hormones that increase satiety and regulate appetite. Hunger control and sustainable eating habits

Hunger control and sustainable eating habits -

Rather than trying to overhaul your entire lifestyle, start by making simple changes that are easy to sustain. Keep track of your progress. Reduce friction and increase your likelihood of success by clearly identifying, anticipating, and removing barriers that may prevent you from achieving your goals.

This is one of the first steps that Dietitians and Nutritionists will initiate. In turn, this may help you stick to new eating habits, even when you are busy. Also consider the stakes of each metric for success.

Source: center of disease control: improving eating habits. This can be done by replacing undesirable behaviors with a new, more positive behavior.

If you struggle to eat enough fruit, make it more accessible by keeping a bowl on the counter. If you forget to drink enough water, make it more accessible by keeping a water bottle by your side. By being mindful, we are more likely to make better food choices, consume more appropriate portions and reduce incidences of overeating.

Health professionals across many disciplines are now seeing the importance of mindset and mindfulness. Many of us perceive small changes as insignificant, or not worthwhile. Comparison is the thief of joy!

Progress is relative to you, and your baseline habits we all have different starting points! The changes we make, and the resulting progress is relative to where we started. The concept of rigid versus flexible constraint is very similar to the idea of quick-fix versus long-term sustainability.

In contrast, a more flexible model allows for occasional indulgences and special occasions, while still sticking to the general parameters of healthy, sustainable eating. In many cases, a rigid approach leads to frustration, heavy restriction, and feelings of dissatisfaction.

A more productive approach is to adopt a flexible model and work on establishing clear boundaries that incorporate some degree of constraint, but are still conducive to long-term sustainability and goal achievement. Finding this balance can be a challenge in itself, but it is essential for a sustainable, long-term approach.

One fundamental part of healthy eating is portion control. Knowing how much your body needs to critical to appropriately fueling your body, and improving your health.

Portion control is the practice of choosing appropriate amounts of certain foods to derive the nutritional benefit of each food item without overeating. A key component of portion control is being mindful of the amount of each food item consumed during a meal, and working towards well-balanced meals that are composed of good proportions of the food groups.

Furthermore, portion control not only refers to the quantity of food but also to the quality of food. Of course, this is largely dependent on the size of the plates that you are currently using. Lymphoma Canada — portion control.

If you tend to eat very quickly — slow down! Eating more slowly helps to increase our awareness of hunger and fullness signals these take time to kick in! In these 24 studies, 2 included vegetarians and vegan consumers in their study design and 7 also explored consumer awareness and knowledge of the environmental impacts of meat consumption.

The structural determinants refer to socioeconomic and political circumstances shaping diets, whereas intermediary determinants relate to the material circumstances, behaviors, and psychosocial factors influencing diets.

The knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of consumers are influenced by several sociodemographic variables. Women are reportedly more engaged with sustainability dietary concerns and are more likely than their male counterparts to act accordingly.

The relationship between higher educational attainment and more-sustainable dietary practices has also been observed in several studies, 19 , 40 , 48 , 51 , 52 , 59 and other additional studies suggest that the more educated a person is, the more likely they are to believe that current levels meat production and consumption are unsustainable 30 , 65 and to purchase meat replacements.

For example, in Portugal, those living in urban areas are more knowledgeable about environmental implications associated with meat production, more familiar with meat alternatives, and more open to reducing meat consumption compared with those living in rural areas.

The social, cultural, economic, and informational environments in which people live can also support existing consumption patterns. For instance, in Norway, 53 New Zealand, 44 and the United Kingdom, 57 the influence of the agricultural sector and institutional discourses on national narratives concerning sustainability was noted as at odds with a shift toward less meat consumption.

In the case of Norway, this was offered as a partial explanation of why consumers underestimate the environmental impacts of meat consumption and was noted as a barrier to reducing current consumption levels.

In Scotland, qualitative findings highlight confusion and skepticism about the amounts of red and processed meat that can be consumed as part of healthy diet and scientific evidence on the health and environmental impacts of red and processed meat, because of perceived conflicts of interest and contradictory messages.

The term sustainable diet has several meanings for consumers, including consuming a healthy, balanced diet 12 , 13 , 19 , 24 , 40 , 41 , 47 , 49 ; encompassing natural, organic, 12 , 24 , 33 , 37 , 40 , 41 , 43 , 47 , 49 fresh, 33 local, and seasonal 12 , 33 , 43 , 49 plant-based whole foods 33 , 37 , 47 ; less but better-quality meat consumption 12 , 43 ; and overall better-quality diets.

Correspondingly, the ecological impacts stemming from diets are not well understood, 33 with pro-environmental behaviors associated more with energy saving at home, recycling, reducing plastic use, and food waste rather than change in dietary behaviors.

For instance, in Australia, plastic waste and felling trees were perceived to have a larger impact on the environment than food behaviors.

The link between food behaviors and climate change is also underestimated, with several studies reporting an overall low awareness of environmental impacts stemming from meat production and consumption.

Across multiple high-income countries, the willingness to reduce meat consumption is low 38 , 48 , 53 , 67 with nondietary-related changes perceived as more acceptable than either reducing or replacing meat in meals.

According to research carried out in the United Kingdom, 26 Australia, 67 and Portugal, 64 these justifications include the beliefs that meat is necessary, healthy, and pleasurable; that reducing consumption is unrealistic or inaccessible; and that the impacts stemming from meat production are neither the fault nor responsibility of the individual.

Consumers who believe in the climatic and environmental impacts of meat consumption are also more likely to reduce their meat consumption. Consumers with a general orientation toward ethics and prosumerism ie, those who favor self-sufficiency and who value naturalness and health eat more plant-based meals but also more fish in comparison with those who value social image, convenience, and pleasure.

For those actively reducing meat intake, some research suggests health as the primary motivation, followed by environmental and animal welfare concerns, whereas abstainers prioritize animal welfare and the environment as the driving motivations.

It is also noteworthy that although commensality ie, eating with others encourages social bonding, it can inhibit dietary change at home, 26 , 44 , 57 at work, 22 and at social gatherings. Despite the various structural and intermediary determinants influencing dietary behavior toward more, or less, sustainable diets, the literature proposes several broad strategies to encourage and support more sustainable dietary behaviors.

These include the attention given to pleasure, taste, and social relatedness, which can be encouraged by promoting quality rather than quantity, urging people to explore additional eating styles, and building food competences, as well as an acceptance of the natural limitations of seasons.

Additional research suggests that people living in a less wealthy neighborhood do not associate plant-based diets with any well-being domains ie, physical, social, human, financial, eudaimonia or overall well-being.

Income also plays a role in determining what is chosen as a substitute and in the experience of navigating health vs environment dilemmas.

In the United States, research indicates that low-income populations tend to reduce the purchase of poultry and seafood rather than of red meat, 48 and research in France suggests that lower-income groups report more health vs environment dilemmas than do higher-income groups.

As highlighted in an Australian study, although consumers may want to support local food production and purchase lower impact, fresh, and nutritious food, and understand the benefits of doing so, highly processed foods are more accessible, cheaper, and allow for food budgets to support other nonflexible costs, such as housing.

Increasing accessibility to more-sustainable food choices in price, availability, and marketing would encourage and enable consumers to practice more-sustainable eating behaviors. Considering the abundance of low-cost meat products in Western food environments, 11 along with a multitude of sociocultural and economic barriers, information alone is unlikely to change behavior.

At the same time, addressing the cultural, social, economic, and physical barriers in society also is a prerequisite for moving toward more-sustainable diets. In the current consumer behavior literature on sustainable diets, health remains the dominant focus, 23 , 57 and several studies call for more attention to be paid to the sociopolitical and cultural constraints influencing diets.

Although still in the minority, an increasing number of people have adopted flexitarian, vegetarian, and vegan diets in recent years, and the rejection of relationism described as an animal ethical position that distinguishes farm animals from other animals [eg, companion or wild] 67 seems to be a factor in this regard.

For instance, in Germany, a quarter of the population does not differentiate between farm and companion animals, and this group of consumers has the highest number of flexitarians and vegetarians.

Introducing consumers to and familiarizing them with meat alternatives are considered important elements of the transition toward diets containing less meat.

Despite a growing market, the consumption of alternative meat products is generally low, 21 , 52 , 57 even in populations who have actively reduced their consumption of meat. For instance, some research suggests that young adults and families exhibit more creativity and exploration when creating meals.

The emphasis is placed on cooking meals from other cultures and trying new recipes. Godin and Sahakian 12 point out that there is no hierarchy attached to the idea of sustainable diets, ideas contained within the concept of sustainable diets are not fixed, and they are emotionally charged, often overlap, and can conflict with other elements.

For instance, local food vs organic food or less meat and better meat vs no meat and navigating these tensions are unfairly left to the consumer, who is perceived as the responsible agent in these matters.

For instance, a potential weakness highlighted in the meatless-day strategy relates to its inability to communicate that overall animal-based protein ought to be reduced and plant-based alternatives pursued.

A more-complex example is that of seafoods, because although the associated greenhouse-gas emissions are lower, additional impacts such as biodiversity loss have yet to be considered in sustainability messaging.

Some consumers are already engaging in multiple actions related to more sustainable diets, such as reducing food waste 19 , 56 and avoiding excess packaging.

Hoek et al 14 echoed this call for more precise messaging along with educating consumers to distinguish between processed and highly processed foods. A call to return to more traditional diets that, in some instances, do not align with sustainability concerns, may also require some consideration.

However, this may depend on the farming systems operating in countries and traditional food cultures. For example, in the Transylvanian region of Romania, most people are interested in consuming quality, locally produced fruits and vegetables, which are central to the traditional food culture in this region in both production and consumption.

Offering counternarratives to the positive attributes associated with the elevated status of meat from health and cultural perspectives has also been noted as a potential strategy worth pursuing. Thus, indirect and structural approaches that facilitate the mainstreaming of plant-based diets may be a better approach.

The literature varies somewhat in terms of which socioeconomic factors determine more sustainable dietary practices, and this is likely attributed to the various socioeconomic and cultural contexts within and between regions and countries. These findings are echoed in a recent study highlighting the narrow focus on health and environmental indicators in research assessing the sustainability of diets.

It is now pertinent that broad and sustained efforts are pursued to introduce and account for the additional dimensions of sustainable diets. Although environmental concerns may not motivate most consumers, there is evidence that additional sustainability concerns, such as fair revenue for producers, workers rights, animal welfare, and the use of pesticides, are, indeed, important to consumers.

Several studies suggest using health, as opposed to environmental, considerations to promote and encourage more sustainable diets. Focusing on the multidimensional nature may also protect against a sustainable diet being conceptualized by stakeholders as a binary concept and as oppositional to a healthy diet.

This approach requires outlining the relationship between food and the wider physical and social environment in all efforts, from awareness raising to policy development, aimed at promoting more sustainable consumption.

Much of the literature about dietary change conforms with the idea that diets more conducive to sustainable diets must be socially and culturally acceptable. Accessibility is a central consideration in the transition toward more sustainable diets, and although price is still critical, several additional factors influence consumption behavior.

So, although ensuring more-sustainable food choices are affordable and available is a prerequisite for encouraging more-sustainable diets for all, additional choice architecture to make the more sustainable choice the more accessible and desirable choice will also be necessary.

In high-income countries, eating less animal-based foods and more whole, plant-based food is the most beneficial action that can be adopted at the individual level to move toward a more sustainable diet. In line with recent evidence, 78 this review highlights that people have difficulty in assessing the wider costs and benefits of their dietary choices.

This presents an opportunity for the development of clear, accurate, and consistent messaging in response to knowledge gaps that may also lessen consumer confusion and skepticism. Addressing the overconsumption of animal-sourced food and UPFs ought to be a policy priority in high-income countries, and there is a risk of the current polarization of pro- and anti-meat reduction leading to policy inertia.

Several studies reviewed here recommend incorporating sustainability in food-based dietary guidelines FBDGs. Historically, the focus of dietary recommendations has been centered on nutrients rather than dietary patterns, 5 whereas today, a growing number of studies see Kumanyika et al 75 for a full review are using a dietary-pattern approach that better reflects how food is consumed and the relationship between diets, health, and environment.

Within these patterns, 2 dietary considerations remain steadfast: protein source and the degree of processing. A reduction in protein intake is not recommended for vulnerable groups, in particular older adults and those at risk of sarcopenia.

These products tend to be marketed as a more sustainable choice yet carry similar health, social, environmental, and food-culture concerns as other UPFs. Currently, consumers approach sustainable diets from a human health perspective primarily, and the interconnectedness of human health and well-being with environmental health is poorly understood.

This highlights the need for public health professionals to work with other sectors and disciplines to develop clear, simple, and coherent messages and narratives. However, several tensions and considerations necessitate exploration in both the country context and the international context, given the highly globalized nature of the contemporary food system.

For example, in dietary guidelines, terms such as local foods, processed food, and seafood as general food categories will require further nuance and more accurate representation, in terms of what a sustainable diet is, that considers additional impacts beyond greenhouse-gas emissions and nutritional benefits.

Moreover, although reducing the overconsumption of meat is central to the transition toward more sustainable diets, the human and planetary health risks and impacts associated with meat consumption depend on how that meat was raised, processed, and prepared.

Using a multicriteria framework 96 as a starting point to map the effects, influences, and various trade-offs would be a useful first step in this regard. This highlights the need for further qualitative research exploring consumer behaviors and attitudes toward more sustainable diets, in addition to research that considers the sociopolitical and structural factors influencing consumer behavior and attitudes.

This would provide a more rounded perspective on the barriers and enablers in the transition toward more sustainable diets. Additionally, well-educated, urban, and female populations tend to be overrepresented in the research focused on consumer behaviors and attitudes toward more sustainable diets.

Researchers should endeavor to capture a broader representation of populations to ensure the views and specific challenges faced by those with, for example, access to fewer resources, are accurately captured. Finally, reducing meat consumption in high-income countries is central to encouraging more-sustainable diets and food systems, and this was reflected in the number of studies focused on this topic.

However, the growing evidence base concerning the wide-ranging effects of UPFs places these foods as an essential consideration for research exploring consumer behaviors and attitudes toward more sustainable diets.

Several studies included in this review suggest that indirect and structural approaches may be better to facilitate the mainstreaming of more plant-based diets, 53 , 54 , 64 and this is aligned with several other global studies highlighting the critical role of government policy in enabling more sustainable diets.

Similarly, we highlight here that a range of intermediary factors influence the uptake of more-sustainable diets and how individual agency is limited by the sociocultural, economic, and political contexts in which people live. Facilitating dietary change is a critical component of the transition toward more-sustainable diets.

We provide an overview of the range of challenges that must be addressed in promoting the uptake of more-sustainable dietary practices and present several interventions that can pursued to facilitate more sustainable diets. The findings contribute to improved understanding of how support can be generated for the necessary structural and system-level changes that are required to support behavior change.

Ultimately, we assert in this review that consumers, insofar as they are interested in sustainability and have the capacity to engage with the concept, approach it from a human health perspective primarily, and that the interconnectedness of human health and well-being with environmental health is poorly understood and under-researched in the context of consumer behaviors and attitudes toward more sustainable diets.

Considering the centrality of human health in current consumer conceptualizations of the term sustainable diet , and in dietary motivations, public health professionals are central to promoting a more holistic understanding of the term.

Correspondingly, 3 key actions to facilitate progress toward more sustainable diets are recommended. First, sustained efforts are needed from public health professionals to encourage a realignment of the term sustainable diet with its multidimensional meaning by championing an ecological public health approach in all efforts aimed at promoting more sustainable consumption from awareness raising to policy development.

Second, a broader research lens should be focused on the multidimensional concept of sustainability in the literature exploring consumer attitudes and behaviors. And third, the development of multidisciplinary, clear, and evidence-based sustainable eating messages, including holistic sustainable dietary guidance, is needed to address knowledge gaps, minimize conflicting narratives, and build consumer agency.

The authors acknowledge Dominyka Jevstafjeva, who provided technical assistance for this research. Author contributions. and J. conceived the review idea and, with I. performed the literature review and data extraction and drafted the manuscript. All authors read drafts of the manuscript and provided feedback prior to the manuscript submission.

The research was funded by safefood, the Food Safety Promotion Board project no. The funding body played no role in the study design, analysis, or manuscript preparation.

Declaration of interest. The authors have no relevant conflicts of interest to report. Harrison MR , Palma G , Buendia T , et al. A scoping review of indicators for sustainable healthy diets. Front Sustain Food Syst. Google Scholar. Chen C , Chaudhary A , Mathys A.

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March 26, Barclay E. A Nation of Meat Eaters: See How It All Adds Up. June 27, Skip to content The Nutrition Source. The Nutrition Source Menu. Search for:. Home Nutrition News What Should I Eat? Prioritize plants The Healthy Eating Plate suggests filling half your plate with vegetables and fruits as part of an optimal diet, but planning our meals around produce benefits the planet as well.

Select new seafood Fish can be a healthy choice if part of an overall healthy dietary style , but some species are at risk of being overfished, or produced in ways that harm the marine environment.

Look local Exploring farmers markets helps you find fresh produce grown locally, but equally important, you can meet the people who produce your food.

ca is specifically designed for Heart health professionals. Not eatinv health professional? Please visit Joint health flexibility. ca or eatinv. Interest in Sating, or planet-friendly, eating is increasing. Regardless of your level of expertise, using an evidence-based approach and your specialized food and nutrition knowledge and skills, you can provide healthy living advice that incorporates sustainability concepts for your clients and communities. The concept Huger healthy Heart health extends Gabits beyond food choice alone. Healthy eating also extends far beyond just weight-loss. Source: Government of Canada. Before going any further, check out our article on How To Spot Red Flags in Diets. Unfortunately, many of quick fixes not only fail to address the underlying problems but may also negatively impact your overall health.

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