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Thermogenesis and calorie expenditure

Thermogenesis and calorie expenditure

Exercise is Often Not Enough for Thermogenesis and calorie expenditure Valorie Exercise alone expendituee generally inadequate unless one finds more time in an already busy schedule, what other options are available? Trayhurn, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition Second Edition Eur J Clin Nutr. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Routtenberg, A.

Thermogenesis and calorie expenditure -

Leibel RL, Rosenbaum M, Hirsch J: Changes in energy expenditure resulting from altered body weight. N Engl J Med. Article CAS Google Scholar. Ravussin E, Lillioja S, Anderson TE, Christin L, Bogardus C: Determinants of hour energy expenditure in man.

Methods and results using a respiratory chamber. J Clin Invest. Lowell BB, Spiegelman BM: Towards a molecular understanding of adaptive thermogenesis.

CAS Google Scholar. Diaz EO, Prentice AM, Goldberg GR, Murgatroyd PR, Coward WA: Metabolic response to experimental overfeeding in lean and overweight healthy volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr. Dulloo AG, Jacquet J: Adaptive thermogenesis is important in the aetiology of obesity: the case for. Progress in Obesity Research.

Edited by: Medeiros-Neto G, Halpern A, Bouchard C. Google Scholar. James WP, McNeill G, Ralph A: Metabolism and nutritional adaptation to altered intakes of energy substrates. Dulloo AG: Thermogenesis is important in the aetiology of obesity: "the case for" Abstract.

Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. Article Google Scholar. Flatt JP: Adaptive changes in thermogenesis are not important in the aetiology of obesity Abstract. Westerterp KR, Plasqui G: Physical activity and human energy expenditure. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care.

Stubbs J, Raben A, Westerterp-Plantenga MS: Macronutrient metabolism and appetite. Regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Edited by: Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Steffens AB, Tremblay A. Westerterp KR, Wilson SAJ, Rolland V: Diet induced thermogenesis measured over 24h in a respiration chamber: effect of diet composition.

Int J Obes. Raben A, Agerholm-Larsen L, Flint A, Holst JJ, Astrup A: Meals with similar energy densities but rich in protein, fat, carbohydrate, or alcohol have different effects on energy expenditure and substrate metabolism but not on appetite and energy intake.

Suter PM, Jequier E, Schutz Y: Effect of ethanol on energy expenditure. Am J Physiol. Horton TJ, Drougas H, Brachey A, Reed GW, Peters JC, Hill JO: Fat and carbohydrate overfeeding in humans: different effects on energy storage.

Stock MJ: Gluttony and thermogenesis revisited. Dulloo AG, Jacquet J: Low-protein overfeeding: a tool to unmask susceptibility to obesity in humans. Miller DS, Mumford P: Gluttony. An experimental study of overeating low- or high-protein diets.

Miller DS, Mumford P, Stock MJ: Gluttony. Thermogenesis in overeating man. Joosen AMCP, Bakker AHF, Westerterp KR: Metabolic efficiency and energy expenditure during short-term overfeeding.

Physiol Behav. Lammert O, Grunnet N, Faber P, Schroll Bjørnsbo K, Dich J, Olesen Larsen L, Neese RA, Hellerstein MK, Quistorff B: Effects of isoenergetic overfeeding of either carbohydrate or fat in young men. Brit J Nutr. Webb P, Annis JF: Adaptation to overeating in lean and overweight men and women.

Hum Nutr Clin Nutr. Tremblay A, Despres JP, Theriault G, Fournier G, Bouchard C: Overfeeding and energy expenditure in humans. Forbes GB, Brown MR, Welle SL, Lipinski BA: Deliberate overfeeding in women and men: energy cost and composition of the weight gain.

Jebb SA, Prentice AM, Goldberg GR, Murgatroyd PR, Black AE, Coward WA: Changes in macronutrient balance during over- and underfeeding assessed by d continuous whole-body calorimetry. Levine JA, Eberhardt NL, Jensen MD: Role of nonexercise activity thermogenesis in resistence to fat gain in humans.

Pasquet P, Brigant L, Froment A, Koppert GA, Bard D, de Garine I, Apfelbaum M: Massive overfeeding and energy balance in men: the Guru Walla model. Ravussin E, Schutz Y, Acheson KJ, Dusmet M, Bourquin L, Jequier E: Short-term, mixed-diet overfeeding in man: no evidence for "luxuskonsumption".

Roberts SB, Young VR, Fuss P, Fiatarone MA, Richard B, Rasmussen H, Wagner D, Joseph L, Holehouse E, Evans WJ: Energy expenditure and subsequent nutrient intakes in overfed young men.

Zed C, James WP: Dietary thermogenesis in obesity: fat feeding at different energy intakes. Bouchard C, Tremblay A, Despres JP, Nadeau A, Lupien PJ, Theriault G, Dussault J, Moorjani S, Pinault S, Fournier G: The response to long-term overfeeding in identical twins.

Black AE, Coward WA, Cole TJ, Prentice AM: Human energy expenditure in affluent societies: an analysis of doubly-labelled water measurements.

Eur J Clin Nutr. Goldberg GR, Prentice AM, Davies HL, Murgatroyd PR: Overnight and basal metabolic rates in men and women. Tremblay A, Nadeau A, Fournier G, Bouchard C: Effect of a three-day interruption of exercise-training on resting metabolic rate and glucose-induced thermogenesis in training individuals.

Tataranni PA, Larson DE, Snitker S, Ravussin E: Thermic effect of food in humans: methods and results from use of a respiratory chamber. Van Es AJ, Vogt JE, Niessen C, Veth J, Rodenburg L, Teeuwse V, Dhuyvetter J, Deurenberg P, Hautvast JG, Van der Beek E: Human energy metabolism below, near and above energy equilibrium.

Br J Nutr. Norgan NG, Durnin JV: The effect of 6 weeks of overfeeding on the body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism of young men. Acheson KJ, Schutz Y, Bessard T, Anantharaman K, Flatt JP, Jequier E: Glycogen storage capacity and de novo lipogenesis during massive carbohydrate overfeeding in man.

Aarsland A, Chinkes D, Wolfe RR: Hepatic and whole-body fat synthesis in humans during carbohydrate overfeeding. Minehira K, Vega N, Vidal H, Acheson K, Tappy L: Effect of carbohydrate overfeeding on whole body macronutrient metabolism and expression of lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue of lean and overweight humans.

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The effect of fat over-feeding on 24 h energy expenditure. Download references. Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, P. Box , , MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

Correspondence to Annemiek MCP Joosen. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Reprints and permissions. Joosen, A. Energy expenditure during overfeeding. Nutr Metab Lond 3 , 25 Download citation.

Received : 24 January Accepted : 12 July Published : 12 July Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:. Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative.

Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF. Download ePub. Abstract The large inter-individual variation in weight gain during standardized overfeeding together with a weight gain that is often less than theoretically calculated from the energy excess suggest that there are differences between persons in the capacity to regulate energy expenditure and hence metabolic efficiency.

Introduction Obesity develops when energy intake EI exceeds energy expenditure EE for longer periods. Human overfeeding experiments Obesity needs a positive energy balance to develop, a situation that is mimicked in overfeeding experiments. Table 1 Selection of human overfeeding experiments Full size table.

Conclusion In humans, evidence for adaptive thermogenesis as a mechanism to explain interindividual differences in weight gain on the same overfeeding regimen is still inconsistent. References Leibel RL, Rosenbaum M, Hirsch J: Changes in energy expenditure resulting from altered body weight.

Article CAS Google Scholar Ravussin E, Lillioja S, Anderson TE, Christin L, Bogardus C: Determinants of hour energy expenditure in man. Article CAS Google Scholar Lowell BB, Spiegelman BM: Towards a molecular understanding of adaptive thermogenesis.

CAS Google Scholar Diaz EO, Prentice AM, Goldberg GR, Murgatroyd PR, Coward WA: Metabolic response to experimental overfeeding in lean and overweight healthy volunteers. CAS Google Scholar Dulloo AG, Jacquet J: Adaptive thermogenesis is important in the aetiology of obesity: the case for.

CAS Google Scholar Dulloo AG: Thermogenesis is important in the aetiology of obesity: "the case for" Abstract. Article Google Scholar Westerterp KR, Plasqui G: Physical activity and human energy expenditure. Article Google Scholar Stubbs J, Raben A, Westerterp-Plantenga MS: Macronutrient metabolism and appetite.

Google Scholar Westerterp KR, Wilson SAJ, Rolland V: Diet induced thermogenesis measured over 24h in a respiration chamber: effect of diet composition. Article CAS Google Scholar Raben A, Agerholm-Larsen L, Flint A, Holst JJ, Astrup A: Meals with similar energy densities but rich in protein, fat, carbohydrate, or alcohol have different effects on energy expenditure and substrate metabolism but not on appetite and energy intake.

CAS Google Scholar Suter PM, Jequier E, Schutz Y: Effect of ethanol on energy expenditure. CAS Google Scholar Horton TJ, Drougas H, Brachey A, Reed GW, Peters JC, Hill JO: Fat and carbohydrate overfeeding in humans: different effects on energy storage. CAS Google Scholar Stock MJ: Gluttony and thermogenesis revisited.

Article CAS Google Scholar Dulloo AG, Jacquet J: Low-protein overfeeding: a tool to unmask susceptibility to obesity in humans. Article CAS Google Scholar Miller DS, Mumford P: Gluttony. CAS Google Scholar Miller DS, Mumford P, Stock MJ: Gluttony. CAS Google Scholar Joosen AMCP, Bakker AHF, Westerterp KR: Metabolic efficiency and energy expenditure during short-term overfeeding.

Article CAS Google Scholar Lammert O, Grunnet N, Faber P, Schroll Bjørnsbo K, Dich J, Olesen Larsen L, Neese RA, Hellerstein MK, Quistorff B: Effects of isoenergetic overfeeding of either carbohydrate or fat in young men. CAS Google Scholar Webb P, Annis JF: Adaptation to overeating in lean and overweight men and women.

CAS Google Scholar Tremblay A, Despres JP, Theriault G, Fournier G, Bouchard C: Overfeeding and energy expenditure in humans. CAS Google Scholar Forbes GB, Brown MR, Welle SL, Lipinski BA: Deliberate overfeeding in women and men: energy cost and composition of the weight gain.

Article CAS Google Scholar Jebb SA, Prentice AM, Goldberg GR, Murgatroyd PR, Black AE, Coward WA: Changes in macronutrient balance during over- and underfeeding assessed by d continuous whole-body calorimetry.

CAS Google Scholar Levine JA, Eberhardt NL, Jensen MD: Role of nonexercise activity thermogenesis in resistence to fat gain in humans. Article CAS Google Scholar Pasquet P, Brigant L, Froment A, Koppert GA, Bard D, de Garine I, Apfelbaum M: Massive overfeeding and energy balance in men: the Guru Walla model.

CAS Google Scholar Ravussin E, Schutz Y, Acheson KJ, Dusmet M, Bourquin L, Jequier E: Short-term, mixed-diet overfeeding in man: no evidence for "luxuskonsumption".

CAS Google Scholar Roberts SB, Young VR, Fuss P, Fiatarone MA, Richard B, Rasmussen H, Wagner D, Joseph L, Holehouse E, Evans WJ: Energy expenditure and subsequent nutrient intakes in overfed young men. CAS Google Scholar Zed C, James WP: Dietary thermogenesis in obesity: fat feeding at different energy intakes.

CAS Google Scholar Bouchard C, Tremblay A, Despres JP, Nadeau A, Lupien PJ, Theriault G, Dussault J, Moorjani S, Pinault S, Fournier G: The response to long-term overfeeding in identical twins. Article CAS Google Scholar Black AE, Coward WA, Cole TJ, Prentice AM: Human energy expenditure in affluent societies: an analysis of doubly-labelled water measurements.

CAS Google Scholar Goldberg GR, Prentice AM, Davies HL, Murgatroyd PR: Overnight and basal metabolic rates in men and women. CAS Google Scholar Tremblay A, Nadeau A, Fournier G, Bouchard C: Effect of a three-day interruption of exercise-training on resting metabolic rate and glucose-induced thermogenesis in training individuals.

CAS Google Scholar Tataranni PA, Larson DE, Snitker S, Ravussin E: Thermic effect of food in humans: methods and results from use of a respiratory chamber. CAS Google Scholar Van Es AJ, Vogt JE, Niessen C, Veth J, Rodenburg L, Teeuwse V, Dhuyvetter J, Deurenberg P, Hautvast JG, Van der Beek E: Human energy metabolism below, near and above energy equilibrium.

Article CAS Google Scholar Norgan NG, Durnin JV: The effect of 6 weeks of overfeeding on the body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism of young men. CAS Google Scholar Acheson KJ, Schutz Y, Bessard T, Anantharaman K, Flatt JP, Jequier E: Glycogen storage capacity and de novo lipogenesis during massive carbohydrate overfeeding in man.

CAS Google Scholar Aarsland A, Chinkes D, Wolfe RR: Hepatic and whole-body fat synthesis in humans during carbohydrate overfeeding. DMH NPY signaling is also reported to be involved in the browning of WAT. To preserve body functions and homeostasis upon exposure to a cold environment, efferent pathways for heat production are activated.

Different regions in the hypothalamus are responsible for cold-induced thermogenesis, both through shivering and nonshivering heat production. The most prominent and well-established circuit that controls body temperature is the preoptic area POA —dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus DMH circuit.

The role of the POA—DMH circuit in the central regulation of responses to temperature change has been extensively reviewed , In brief, the POA is known to receive sensory input from temperature-sensitive neurons. The thermogenic response upon cooling requires the activation of neurons in the MnPO and GABAergic inhibitory signals to the MPO or glutamatergic input to the DMH Blocking MnPO neuron activation with the GABA agonist muscimol ablates both shiver and nonshivering thermogenic responses to cold exposure Similarly, the inactivation of GABAergic neurons in the VLPO can elicit a hyperthermic response GABAergic VLPO neurons project to GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons in the DMH, whose activation induces quick rises in body temperature, energy, and physical activity , Furthermore, cold exposure induces Fos expression in the POA and DMH , , , The Fos-immunoreactive cell distributions in the POA are different between cold- and hot-stimulus-receiving animals , suggesting the segregation of cold-sensitive neurons.

Neurons in the DMH are also reported to be activated by cold exposure. Cooling activates both GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons in the DMH, and the effect may come from sensory temperature signals rather than body temperature changes Direct cooling of the POA induces shivering responses , while the warming of the POA with thermoprobes ablates this response , This evidence suggests the existence of thermosensitive neurons in the hypothalamus that primarily respond to temperature changes.

However, the characteristics of cold-responsive neurons either directly or through an afferent from peripheral signals are still rather ambiguous. Recently, Viktor V. Feketa et al. Using electrophysical approaches, the authors demonstrated that CNGA3 homomers and heteromers with CNGA1 induce currents in response to a decrease in temperature, and this effect is dependent on cyclic GMP The VMH is another important nucleus involved in cold-induced thermogenesis, as the activation of the VMH induces BAT thermogenesis in cold-exposed rats and increases oxygen consumption and shivering in rabbits , and chemical lesioning of the VMH causes cold intolerance in rats Takayuki Ishiwata and colleagues proposed that the VMH is not involved in thermogenesis under cold conditions, with evidence that extracellular noradrenaline, serotonin, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid DOPAC levels in the VMH are not changed during cold exposure However, the data showed that body temperature increase and sympathetic output were reflected through heart rate, while the cold challenge was blocked with the perfusion of tetrodotoxin into the VMH In addition, it is debatable whether microdialysis at the level of the lateral VMH can fully demonstrate neurotransmitter release from VMH neurons to downstream target regions, as the VMH does not directly innervate BAT In addition, genetic approaches have identified several genetic factors that are involved in thermogenesis during a cold stimulus.

Another key regulator, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 CDK4 , also showed importance in the cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis of SF-1 neurons, as the deletion of CDK4 increased cold resistance in mice, with increased sympathetic outflow and UCP1 expression in BAT Maintaining body temperature during cold exposure also requires the action of thyroid hormones and regulation through the hypothalamus—pituitary—thyroid axis.

The role of thyroid hormones and TRH in cold environments was reviewed This further highlights the role of the hypothalamus—especially the PVN—in the regulation of adaptive thermogenesis during cold exposure.

Neurons in the PVN are also responsible for the synthesis of the hormone oxytocin. The disruption of oxytocin signaling through global knockout of oxytocin or oxytocin causes impairments in heat generation during the cold challenge period and lowers Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the DMH during cold challenges , , The re-expression of oxytocin receptor in the DMH and VMH in mice with global oxytocin receptor knockout suffices to reverse the cold intolerance phenotypes , providing evidence of crosstalk between hypothalamic areas to control cold-induced thermogenesis.

The relationship between hypothalamic nuclei and some adaptive thermogenesis mechanisms is depicted in Fig. Adaptive thermogenesis from nutritional or hormonal cues or from ambient temperature changes is controlled through different hypothalamic pathways.

Arrowheads: inducing or projecting, Blunted-bar heads: inhibiting. Even though the input from the hypothalamus to browning adipose tissues has been well-established in rodent models, Rachid et al.

suggested that there is no correlation between hypothalamus activity assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI and the browning of adipose tissues or thermogenic gene expression in BAT However, the data suggested that in obese patients undergoing weight reduction, there is a blunted and suggestively damaged hypothalamus response after cold exposure This finding leads to questions regarding the translation of animal study findings to humans in clinical settings.

Thermogenesis is a crucial component in the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Progress has been made in the understanding of the regulation of energy expenditure and thermogenesis, especially the central and hypothalamic control of this vital process.

However, circuits and genetic factors involved in thermoregulation that we have not discovered may still exist. Further work is required to fully understand these metabolic pathways and to translate the findings into clinical contexts.

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Metrics details. The expenxiture Thermogenesis and calorie expenditure variation in Thermogenesis and calorie expenditure gain during standardized overfeeding together with a weight calorje that Nutritional healing process often less than theoretically calculated from the energy expendditure suggest Thermogenessis there are differences between Thermogenesis and calorie expenditure in the capacity to regulate energy expenditure and hence metabolic efficiency. Calorei thermogenesis is defined as the regulated production of heat in response to environmental changes in temperature and diet, resulting in metabolic inefficiency. The question is whether adaptive thermogenesis can be identified in overfeeding experiments. From the numerous human overfeeding experiments we selected those studies that applied suitable protocols and measurement techniques. Five studies claimed to have found evidence for adaptive thermogenesis based on weight gains smaller than expected or unaccounted increases in thermogenesis above obligatory costs. Results from the other 11 studies suggest there is no adaptive thermogenesis as weight gains were proportional to the amount of overfeeding and the increased thermogenesis was associated with theoretical costs of an increased body size and a larger food intake. New customer? Create your account. Lost password? Recover password. Remembered your password? Back expwnditure login. Already have an account?

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