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Garlic and blood clot prevention

Garlic and blood clot prevention

CAS PubMed Andd Garlic and blood clot prevention Srivastava KC, Tyagi OD: Effects of a garlic-derived principle ajoene on Nutritional supplements guide and arachidonic acid metabolism in human Garlic and blood clot prevention platelets. significantly reduced body weight gain of rats [ ]. B,ood D, Redmon N, Mazzio Lrevention, et al. Gardner, C. CAS Google Scholar Chen L, Hong JY, So E, Hussain AH, Cheng WF: Decrease of hepatic catalase level by treatment with diallyl sulfide and garlic homogenates in rats and mice. Diets that are high in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products; have been shown to reduce hypertension. LifeSource Vitamins: Driven by Faith ~ Powered by God Have Questions on this or any other product or health issue for you or a loved one?

Garlic and blood clot prevention -

Raising the end of your bed by 4 to 6 inches can also be beneficial. If you experience difficulty breathing, chest pain that intensifies with deep breaths, coughing up blood, or a faster-than-normal or irregular heartbeat, seek emergency medical attention or hematologist immediately as these may be signs of a blood clot.

In addition, contact a doctor as soon as possible if you have swelling in your arms or legs, unexplained pain or tenderness, warm skin, or redness or discolouration of the skin.

There are no proven natural remedies that can dissolve blood clots. However, certain lifestyle changes and dietary modifications can help reduce the risk of blood clots and improve overall cardiovascular health.

These include regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, eating a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, staying hydrated, and avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.

There are no specific drinks that can dissolve blood clots. However, staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water can help prevent blood clots from forming in the first place.

Certain beverages like green tea, grape juice, and cranberry juice contain antioxidants and other compounds that may help improve cardiovascular health and reduce the risk of blood clots.

The time it takes for a blood clot to dissolve naturally can vary depending on the size and location of the clot. Disclaimer: We recommend consulting a Doctor before taking any action based on the above shared information.

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Please share your details here Popup form - chat bot First Name. How to dissolve blood clots naturally February 6, Share the article. Contents Home remedies to help in dissolving clots Prevention of blood clot When to seek emergency medical attention?

People also ask. Contact Form - sidebar MAKE AN ENQUIRY. Query Selected. Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Åland Islands. Your Message. LATEST BLOGS Reasons for High Heart Rate. Some research shows that garlic can also lower cholesterol levels.

While not all the scientific evidence supports this, two meta-analyses a meta-analysis combines the results of several studies have found that garlic can reduce cholesterol by an impressive 10 per cent.

The vast majority of studies into the beneficial effects of garlic have used supplements, most of which were based on dried garlic powder. Suitable supplements usually in tablet form are widely available in health food stores and pharmacies.

Garlic's effective dose appears to be around mg per day though larger doses appear to be necessary for cholesterol reduction. If you want to take a more natural route, then you'll need to consume the equivalent of one or two cloves of garlic a day. But be warned: many of garlic's therapeutic properties are believed to be lost during cooking, meaning that for maximum benefit, garlic needs to be taken raw.

Finally, a word of caution - while garlic does seem to have a myriad of desirable effects in the body, it does need to be handled with care. Because garlic thins the blood, it can increase bleeding tendency. For this reason, I don't recommend that it is mixed with blood-thinning drugs, such as warfarin or aspirin for that matter.

Also, anyone undergoing surgery should stop garlic 10 days before the operation, commencing again a week after the procedure. I was interested to read your piece about brain function and how eating oily fish can help preserve this.

However, I am a vegetarian. Is there something I could substitute for fish that might do the same job? Mrs ME Cicolini, London. The two fats in oily fish that seem to help preserve brain function are eicosapentaenoic acid EPA and docosahexaenoic acid DHA , which are part of a class of fats known as the omega-3 fatty acids.

EPA and DHA can be formed in the body from another omega-3 fat known as alpha-linolenic acid ALA , which is found in foods such as flaxseeds linseeds and flaxseed oil, pumpkin seeds and walnuts.

However, it is known that the conversion of ALA into EPA and DHA can be somewhat sluggish, so consuming plenty of ALA may not provide all the benefits to be had from oily fish.

Here are some studies:. Bruce Brightman — founder. LifeSource Vitamins. Proudly Made in the USA! Every LifeSource Vitamins product exceeds all regulatory standards and requirements set forth in the FDA's Code of Federal Regulation.

CGMP's provide for systems that assure proper design, monitoring, and control of manufacturing processes and facilities. LifeSource Vitamins: Driven by Faith ~ Powered by God.

Have Questions on this or any other product or health issue for you or a loved one? It can be overwhelming we know. Toll-Free: LifeSource Vitamins — Founded in Campus Crusade for Christ - CRU. The Jesus Film Project. World Vision. The Tim Tebow Foundation.

Compassion International. The Herman and Sharron Show on CTN Christian Television Network and many more…. E-mail Us: [email protected]. or Call Us: These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Cot in on certain foods and drinks can clto a powerful dose of protection cllot dangerous blood Chia seed beverages. Deep Garlic and blood clot prevention thrombosis DVT is a condition in which a blood lrevention forms Garlic and blood clot prevention a vein deep inside preventino body, typically in the lower leg or thigh. Although precise numbers Gar,ic unknown, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC reports that as many aspeople in the United States may be affected by deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism when part of a blood clot breaks off and travels to the lungs each year. Additionally, during the onset of the COVID pandemicthere was a spike in the rate of blood clot patients coming into hospitals. The good news: DVT is both preventable and treatable. One simple step you can take right now to lower your risk is to change your diet. On the flip side, he says, adding certain other foods to your diet can help prevent DVT.

Garlic and blood clot prevention -

It indicated that garlic might contribute to treating AS by delaying clotting time, altering angiotensin, and decreasing the expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM Tissue factor TF is a crucial factor in initiating the extrinsic coagulation cascade pathway, which is responsible for producing thrombin from prothrombin via activation of factor VII Dahlbäck, Subendothelial TF is also accountable for initiating fibrin formation at sites of vascular injury, and blood-borne TF may be a vital contributor to the propagation of the developing thrombus Grover and Mackman, It has been reported that tumor necrosis factor-α TNF-α induced TF mRNA expression in HUVECs was suppressed by the inhibition of JNK.

Therefore, inhibition of the JNK pathway by DATS may inhibit the induction of TF by TNF-α. DATS inhibited not only TF activity but also TF mRNA and protein expression in vitro Okue et al. Garlic is a promising food with anti-thrombotic function, which can suppress both primary and secondary clot formation.

The antithrombotic effect of garlic is beneficial for patients who are allergic or intolerant to aspirin and is expected to be an alternative or complementary therapy to antiplatelet therapy.

Plaque angiogenesis is considered to play an essential role in the pathophysiological development of AS. Neointimal angiogenesis is highly related to plaque formation and the risk of plaque rupture.

Plaque angiogenesis quickly leads to the formation of plaque and thus increasing the risk of rupture Sluimer and Daemen, In the past 30 years, the research mainly focused on the role of new blood vessels in plaque formation and rupture Kockx et al.

Plaque angiogenesis is related to plaque vulnerability and plaque erosion. Many angiogenic factors participate in plaque formation, mainly vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor bFGF. Akt activation is associated with angiogenesis Morales-Ruiz et al.

In vitro and in vitro experiments proved that Allicin can inhibit angiogenesis and weaken epithelial cell proliferation, tubule formation, actin polymerization, and Akt phosphorylation by reducing VEGF and bFGF expression Sela et al.

DATS is an effective inhibitor of the angiogenic properties of HUVECs in vitro , for example, inhabiting capillary tube formation and migration.

ECs dysfunction is a crucial factor in the development of AS Donato et al. The dysfunction of ECs refers to a decrease in NO-mediated vasodilatory responses in ECs in response to different pathological stimuli. The excessive synthesis of Endothelin-1 ET1 leads to an increase in vasoconstriction and vascular permeability.

This change can lead to the release of pro-inflammatory factors, over-activation of platelets, enhanced oxidation of LDL, and proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells Gimbrone and García-Cardeña, ; Pi et al.

Clinical studies have found that allicin reduces ET-1 and C-reaction protein CRP levels and elevates NO levels, improves endothelial dysfunction, and reduces the incidence of restenosis in patients after PCI Wang and Fu, A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial suggested that short-term treatment with AGE may improve endothelial function in patients with coronary artery heart disease CHD Williams et al.

Another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial found that AGE supplementation was beneficial in reducing endothelial biomarkers associated with cardiovascular risks, such as the arterial stiffness index SI , high-sensitivity C-reactive protein hsCRP , PAI-1 as well as total antioxidant status TAS Szulińska et al.

Garlic extracts significantly reduce the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by Interleukin-1 alpha IL-1a and considerably inhibit the adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells stimulated by IL-1a Rassoul et al.

l -arginine in AGE promotes NO production mediated by Endothelin nitric oxide synthase eNOS , leading to vasodilation Nie et al. Oral DADS analogs can reverse L-N G-Nitro arginine methyl ester l -NAME -induced systolic blood pressure, oxidative stress, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme ACE activity, cyclic guanosine monophosphate cGMP , and NO levels, which may be related to activation of eNOS Williams et al.

DAT significantly reduced the levels of MDA and ROS in mitochondria and increased the activities of SOD and Glutathione peroxidase GSH-Px. DAT protects the vascular endothelium from hyperglycemia-induced damage by reducing oxidative stress in mitochondria Liu et al. The calcium-sensing receptor CaSR is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily, and activation of CaSR reduces cell viability and promotes apoptosis Zhang et al.

Allicin may inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis and protect vascular endothelial function by suppressing the expression of CaSR and inhibiting the oxidative stress response Xu et al. This suggests that garlic consumption may reduce oxidative damage to endothelial cells and improve vascular function.

Vascular endothelial barrier function is maintained by a cell-to-cell junctional proteins and contributes to vascular homeostasis Chistiakov et al. Various risk factors such as inflammation disrupt barrier function through down-regulation of these proteins and promote vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis Hofmann et al.

AGE and its primary sulfur-containing constituent, Spropenylcysteine S1PC , reduced hyperpermeability elicited by TNF-α in HUVECs. In addition, S1PC inhibited TNF-α-induced production of myosin light chain MLC kinase and inactivation of MLC phosphatase through the suppression of the Rac and Ras homolog gene family, member A RhoA signaling pathways, respectively, which resulted in the dephosphorylation of MLC2, a key factor of actin remodeling.

Moreover, S1PC inhibited the phosphorylation and activation of guanine nucleotide exchange factor-H1 GEF-H1 , a common upstream key molecule and activator of Rac and RhoA.

These effects of S1PC were accompanied by its ability to prevent the disruption of junctional proteins in the cell-cell contact regions and the increase of actin stress fibers induced by TNF-α Kunimura et al.

It is generally known that AS is considered a chronic inflammatory disease because inflammation goes through all AS processes and plays an essential role. When ECs are activated, Inflammatory factors such as monocyte chemotactic protein 1 MCP-1 , interleukin-8 IL-8 , ICAM-1, VCAM-1, Endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 ELAM-1 , and granular membrane protein GMP attract lymphocytes and monocytes bound to ECs and arterial walls, contributing to inflammation Zhu et al.

In addition, monocytes differentiate into macrophages which can phagocytize ox-LDL and ultimately transform it into lipid-laden foam cells Kattoor et al.

During arterial endothelium damage, foam cells form and accumulate and release inflammatory mediators such as MCP-1 and TNF-α Javadifar et al.

The activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway stimulates the formation of the inflammatory process, which leads ECs to take on AS phenotypes in the carotid sinus Tabas et al. In a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial by Martiné Wlosinska et al. The results showed that AGE could effectively decrease levels of IL-6 Wlosinska et al.

AGE also regulates the inflammatory process by inducing AMPK activation and down-regulating the Toll-like receptor TLR signaling pathway Miki et al. Z-Ajone reduces the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT3, inhibits the activity of Cyclooxygenase-2 COX2 Hitchcock et al.

The innate and adaptive immunity cells play a significant role in atherosclerosis progression. T helper 1 cell Th1 is the subset of T lymphocytes mostly found in atherosclerotic lesions based on the cytokine it produces.

Th1 cells secrete Interferon-gamma IFN-g and TNF-a proinflammatory cytokines to enhance immune response through macrophage activation, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells during atherogenesis Wu et al.

A study confirmed that Single garlic oil could suppress CD4 t-cells activation and NF-κB expression in high-fat diet mice. Furthermore, Single garlic oil plays a role as an athero-protective agent in the High-fat diet condition through the decrease in proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-a and IFN-g Lestari et al.

SGO could act as a promising prospect for therapy to improve chronic inflammation in AS. It has been reported that the development of atherosclerosis alters the ratio of polarized macrophages. M1 macrophages promote the formation of AS plaques by sustaining inflammation, whereas M2 macrophages aid the regression of atherosclerotic Yang et al.

AGE increased the mRNA or protein levels of arginase1 Arg1 , interleukin IL , CD, and hypoxia-inducible factor 2α HIF2α. S1PC increased the level of ILinduced Arg1 mRNA and the extent of M2c-like macrophage polarization in vitro.

In addition, S1PC increased the population of M2c-like macrophages, suppressing the people of M1-like macrophages and decreasing lipopolysaccharide-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These findings suggest that S1PC may help improve atherosclerosis due to its anti-inflammatory effect in promoting ILinduced M2c macrophage polarization.

Allicin significantly increased the cell viability of HUVECs, inhibited apoptosis, and protected against ox-LDL-induced damage in HUVECs by inhibiting caspase-3 and Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate NADPH oxidase-related apoptotic signaling pathways Chen et al.

H2O2 can cause apoptosis in vascular ECs through multiple pathways and is recognized as a standard model of oxidative injury. Allicin effectively reduced H2O2-induced apoptosis in HUVECs, probably because allicin stabilized the expression of pro-Caspase-3 protein and decreased the expression of poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase PARP and BCL2-Associated X Bax proteins.

Allicin can increase SOD, NO, and eNOS and decrease MDA, indicating that allicin can protect HUVECs induced by H 2 O 2 from apoptosis by reducing oxidative stress Chen et al.

Allicin can attenuate apoptosis induced by Lipopolysaccharide LPS , and its mechanism is related to inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction, such as inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases MMPs collapse, reduction of cytochrome c synthesis, and mitochondrial ATP release Zhang et al.

Cardiomyocyte apoptosis plays a vital role in the development of AS. High cholesterol diet-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes is associated with Fatty acid synthase Fas -dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway activity. Mitochondrial-dependent pathway plays an essential role in cell apoptosis by releasing caspase 9.

Garlic activates the PI3K-Akt pathway, inhibits TNF-α, Fas, caspase 8, caspase 9, and caspase 3, upregulates the protein level of mitochondrial B-cell lymphoma-2 Bcl-2 , and reduces the protein levels of recombinant human bh3-interacting domain death agonist B.

and Bax Cheng et al. In addition to the above mechanisms, garlic and its extracts can also inhibit the development of AS by inhibiting the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle, regulating gut microbiota and supplement with phytoestrogens. An essential feature of AS is the transformation of quiescent or differentiated VSMCs into proliferating or dedifferentiated cells, leading to enhanced migration of VSMCs.

Ajoene and MATS down-regulate the activities of protein farnesyltransferase PFTase and protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I PGGTase-I , contributing to the inhibition of VSMCs proliferation Ferri et al. AGE reduced aortic fatty streaks and carotid intima-media thickness in cholesterol-fed New Zealand rabbits and acted by reducing tissue cholesterol accumulation and inhibiting smooth muscle proliferation.

Thus, AGE may protect against the development of AS Efendy et al. AS is strongly associated with the gut microbiota and its metabolites. A study confirmed that certain beneficial and anti-inflammatory gut commensal bacteria, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Akkermansia spp.

In diet-induced obese DIO mice alliin regulates glucose metabolism by reducing Lachnospiraceae and increasing Ruminococcaceae in the intestine, thereby delaying the progression of AS Zhai et al. Garlic may be an essential prebiotic, which can induce the growth of beneficial flora The cardiovascular effects are shown in Table 1 and Figure 5.

FIGURE 5. Mechanisms of the protective role of garlic in the treatment of atherosclerosis. The risk of AS progression is significantly increased in postmenopausal women, semmingly retale to decline level of estrogen secretion.

Few pharmacokinetic studies of garlic have been conducted, mainly focusing on alliin, SAC, and DATS. The absorption and elimination of alliin radioactivity were significantly faster than other garlic components, reaching maximum blood levels within the first 10 min and almost eliminated from the blood after 6 h.

The mean total urinary and fecal excretion of Allicin after 72 h was After injecting 10 mg DATS into the jugular vein of rats, the plasma concentration of DATS reached the peak of 31 μm within 1 min and gradually returned to the baseline level within 24 h. DATS was injected intravenously into rats with microemulsion, and the plasma concentration of DATS reached its peak within 3 h.

Following the ingestion of DATS by human subjects, the breakdown product Allyl methyl sulfide AMS concentration increased to a peak at 5 h. The concentrations of AMDS, DAS, DADS, and DATS peaked within 2—3 h, while the concentrations of the other compounds increased more slowly Morihara et al.

Further pharmacokinetic studies of garlic are needed to determine its potential to treat AS. Although garlic is generally considered safe for humans, it can still cause adverse reactions in sensitive individuals when ingested at high doses.

A randomized controlled trial was conducted in which ingestion of high doses of raw garlic on an empty stomach caused changes in the intestinal flora, flatulence, and gastrointestinal disturbances to assess the safety of garlic Rana et al.

In addition, blisters, dermatitis, and burns can be observed by topical application of raw garlic Piasek et al. In vivo experiments have shown that prolonged intake of high doses of raw garlic can lead to weight loss and hemolytic anemia. In addition, chronic administration of 50 mg of garlic powder per day produces anti-androgenic effects, leading to reduced sialic acid concentrations in the seminal vesicles, testes, and epididymis and reduced interstitial cell function Rana et al.

The primary toxicological mechanism of sulfide in garlic is oxidative hemolysis, which is characterized by methemoglobinemia and the formation of Heinz bodies. Early clinical signs include depression, vomiting, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, diarrhea, pale mucous membranes of the fundus, jaundice, increased heart and respiratory rates, weakness, and hemoglobinuria Salgado et al.

A low dose of garlic is safe, therapeutic dose may cause mild gastrointestinal disorder, while a high dose of garlic may cause liver damage Rahman et al. The antithrombotic activity of garlic may interact with oral anticoagulants, so care must be taken when used in concert with oral anticoagulants Rose et al.

Allicin is a membrane-permeable compound that readily enters cells and interacts with sulfhydryl-containing compounds in cells, such as GSH or cysteine residues in proteins and enzymes containing active cysteine, resulting in cytotoxicity of allicin.

The quality standards of garlic or related species are included in the United States Pharmacopoeia, the European Pharmacopoeia, and the British Pharmacopoeia. The quality standards of garlic were included in the edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

However, the quality standard for garlic was not found in subsequent editions of the Pharmacopoeia until it was reintroduced in the edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

Since thiosulfinate and decomposition products are biologically active, and the primary precursor substance is alliin, the leading testing indexes for garlic and garlic-related species internationally are the content of alliin, the activity of allinase or the content of potential allicin.

Other indicators are tested for garlic preparations prepared for various purposes and methods. The British, American, and European Pharmacopoeias all contain garlic or related preparations, with alliin or potential allicin as the leading indicator for product quality control.

The United States Pharmacopoeia contains the most varieties of garlic, while the British and European Pharmacopoeia only contains garlic powder. Garlic oil is extracted from crushed garlic and includes only the fat-soluble sulfide DAS, DADS, DATS, etc.

Garlic extract is extracted by organic solvent, which inhibits allinase activity, and the extract consists of fat-soluble sulfide and allicin without allicin. The preparation prepared by pulverizing garlic cloves into powder contains alliin and a small amount of fat-soluble sulfide Harauma and Moriguchi, ; Corzo-Martínez et al.

Freeze-dried garlic powder and its preparations made from garlic by low-temperature freeze-drying can produce allicin under suitable conditions in vivo due to the retention of alliin and active allinase.

Therefore the European Pharmacopoeia and the United States Pharmacopoeia require determining the potential allicin content for the corresponding preparations and raw materials. The antiatherogenic effects and mechanisms of garlic were discussed in this review, and it was thought that further research should be conducted in the future on the following aspects.

Garlic contains multi-bioactive components, such as allicin, DAS, DADS, and DATS, among which allicin is the primary bioactive substance of garlic. DATS has been included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission, , and alliin and allicin have been included in the European Pharmacopoeia European Pharmacopoeia, The research progress of Allicin is restricted because of its unstable chemical properties and difficulties in preparation and storage.

China has established a patented technology for preparing Allicin, which can extract more stable and higher purity allicin, making it possible to conduct in-depth research. Therefore, there is an urgent need to conduct pharmacological studies on garlic and its active ingredients in the future to clarify the actual active ingredients of garlic as soon as possible.

The formation of AS is a multifactorial interaction, so it should be studied in depth from various pathways, links, and targets. The biological effects of garlic may meet the need for a multi-targeted therapeutic strategy for AS. However, some contradictory results may be related to the inconsistency between the quality, extraction, preparation, and dosage of garlic and the experimental objects and methods.

Therefore, future research on garlic should be deepened in the above aspects. Garlic may exert antiatherogenic effects through hypolipidemic, antioxidant, antithrombotic, inhibiting angiogenesis, protecting endothelial cells, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, inhibiting vascular smooth muscle proliferation, and regulating gut microbiota.

However, there is still no molecular mechanism for clinical AS patients. Therefore, the direct AS protection mechanisms of garlic have not been explored. Further studies in animals and humans should evaluate the protective ability of single garlic-derived compounds against AS.

Future studies should also focus on the beneficial effects of whole garlic and garlic-derived compounds on AS based on relevant signaling pathways. Therefore, there is an urgent need for large randomized, controlled, and double-blind trials to assess the efficacy and safety of garlic in the treatment of AS from the perspective of clinical practice.

In addition, it will make the clinical application of garlic safer and more effective in solving the adverse reactions of garlic by inhibiting oxidized hemolysate and reducing the risk of bleeding. ML and WY contributed equally to this manuscript. QH designed the study and was the corresponding author.

GW and QH drafted the figure. JG and AL drafted the table. ML and WY drafted the initial full manuscript. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript. This work was funded by the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Basic Research Cooperation Project No. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

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Aged garlic extract AGE also exerted its antioxidant action by scavenging reactive oxygen species [ ] and enhancing the cellular antioxidants, like reduced glutathione superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase of vascular endothelial cells [ , ].

Augmented endogenous antioxidants on heart and endothelial cells have important direct cytoprotective effects, especially in the event of oxidant stress induced injury.

Recently, in our laboratory, we found that chronic oral administration of garlic homogenate protected the rat heart from in vitro ischemic reperfusion injury [ ] and oxidative stress induced by single dose of adriamycin [ ].

AGE has been shown to offer protection against the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin, an antineoplastic agent used in cancer therapy [ ]. Feeding of garlic powder in rats for 11 days had a protective effect on isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage [ ].

AGE also protected vascular endothelial cells from H 2 O 2 -induced oxidant injury [ ]. Aortic stiffening is as much an important risk factor in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as it serves as reliable surrogate marker for clinical endpoints like myocardial and cerebrovascular incidents.

Elevated aortic stiffness induces high systolic blood pressure, augmented pulse pressure with increased ventricular afterload, reduced subendocardial blood flow and augmented pulsatile stress in the peripheral arteries [ ].

In population, consuming garlic for long period, attenuation of age-related increase in aortic stiffness has been observed. This suggests a protective effect on the elastic properties of the aorta related to aging in human [ ].

This study also showed that regular long term garlic powder intake protected endothelial cell from oxidative injury [ ]. There was a significant decrease of plasma viscosity.

It is also quite interesting that the garlic-specific increase in walking distance did not appear to occur until the 5 th week of treatment [ 87 ]. Plasma viscosity was decreased by 3. Kiesewetter also reported that garlic improved blood fluidity and increased capillary perfusion [ ].

All these studies are summarised in Table- 6. Considering the fact that garlic has been an integral part of our diet for centuries, it is taken for granted that garlic is safe in a wide range of doses. But a few isolated reports highlight some of the adverse and toxic effects of garlic.

Higher concentrations of garlic extract have been shown to be clastogenic [ ] in mice, which was appreciably reduced at lower concentrations. Prolong feeding of high levels of raw garlic in rats has resulted in anemia, weight loss and failure to grow due to lysis of red blood cells [ ].

Surviving rats exhibited swelling of the liver, hypertrophy of the spleen and adrenal glands, and the decrease of erythrocyte count with various morphological changes after 3 and 8 days. Histopathological examination of liver showed focal nonspecific injury with inflammatory cell infiltration in hepatocytes [ ].

Chen et al. The exact mechanism of such garlic induced alteration in cell structure and function is not clear. There is also some reported toxicity with garlic powder.

Reduced concentration of sialic acid in the testes, epididymis and seminal vesicles together with decreased leydig cell function reflects antiandrogenic effect of garlic [ ]. Another in vitro study showed that diallyl sulfide oxidized product of allicin at 5 mM significantly decreased cell viability in liver [ ].

The cause of death appears to be acute pulmonary edema with severe congestion [ ]. significantly reduced body weight gain of rats [ ]. Ajoene, a garlic derived natural compound, present in other types of garlic oil, is an inhibitor as well as a substrate of human glutathione reductase and expected to increase the oxidative stress of the respective cell [ ].

All the above mentioned toxicity reports can not be explained to its fullest extent but the sulphoxides present in the garlic extract can undergo exchange reaction with the tritable SH-groups of enzymes and other proteins in the body spontaneously at physiological pH and temperature, inhibiting their activity.

Garlic has been demonstrated to inhibit the alkaline phosphatase [ ], papain, and alcohol dehydrogenase [ ]. These enzyme interactions with garlic components may be a reason for its toxicity. Relatively few side effects were reported in clinical studies using garlic and its preparations.

Most of the reported side effects were non-specific. Gastrointestinal discomfort and nausea were the most frequent complaint [ ]. A survey by Koch showed that allergic reactions to garlic were reported in a total of 39 publications between and [ ].

Most of these cases involved an allergic contact dermatitis, sometimes severe [ ], which has been reported in people with occupational exposure to garlic. There have also been sporadic reports of allergic conjunctivitis, rhinitis, or bronchospasms occurring in response to garlic inhalation or ingestion [ , ].

Other reported side effects included bloating, headache, dizziness, and profuse sweating [ ]. Ingestion of fresh garlic and garlic powder may have additive effects with anticoagulants or platelet aggregation inhibitors, leading in one case to a life-threatening hemorrhage [ — ].

Epidemiological study shows an inverse correlation between garlic consumption and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease progression [—]. The wealth of scientific literature supports the proposal that garlic consumption have significant cardioprotective effect, which include both animal and human studies.

But certain issues regarding the proper use of garlic, i. e use of different preparations available, dose, duration and interaction with generic drugs should be optimized. Further research should also be carried out to identify specific compounds from garlic or garlic products that are responsible for most of its biological effects.

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Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review. Nutr J 1 , 4 Download citation. Received : 10 October Accepted : 19 November Published : 19 November Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:. Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF. Download ePub. Abstract Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes.

Introduction Dietary factors play a key role in the development of various human diseases, including cardiovascular disease.

Historical perspective of garlic It is fascinating to observe how cultures that never came into contact with one another came to the same conclusions about the role of garlic in health and disease.

Garlic preparations and their chemical compounds Raw garlic homogenate has been the major preparation of garlic subjected to intensive scientific study, as because it is the commonest way of garlic consumption.

Atherosclerosis and lipid metabolism Atherosclerosis is a complex disease, characterized by an excessive inflammatory, fibro-fatty, proliferative response to damage of the artery wall involving several cell types, particularly smooth muscle cells, monocyte-derived macrophages, T-lymphocyte and platelets [ 7 ].

Human studies Since there have been more than 46 from medline search human studies on lipid-lowering effects of garlic and garlic preparations. Table 1 Studies showing no cholesterol lowering effect: Full size table.

Fibrinolytic activity Inhibition of fibrinolytic activity FA or deficiency of the factors involved might upset the hemostatic balance and allow excessive fibrin deposition. Animals studies Marked rise in blood coagulability of rabbits that followed 3 months of cholesterol feeding 0.

Human studies Almost all human studies on fibrinolytic activity of garlic have been found to have positive effect Table- 2.

Table 2 Fibrinolytic activity in human: Full size table. Platelet aggregation Platelet aggregation superimposed on an atherosclerosis vessel is an antecedent event causing total blockage of blood flow leading to myocardial infarction and thromboembolic diseases. Human Study In human studies a positive response to garlic has been observed.

Table 3 Inhibition of Platelet aggregation PA in human: Full size table. Blood pressure lowering effect A general definition of hypertension is a systolic blood pressure SBP of mm Hg or higher or a diastolic blood pressure DBP of 90 mm Hg or higher or both.

Animal Studies In experimental animals, intravenous injection of garlic extracts produced slight reductions in both systolic and diastolic pressures [ 91 , 92 ].

Human study Blood pressure lowering effect of garlic on human is given in Table- 4. Table 4 Blood pressure lowering effect in Human Full size table. Diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases characterized by high blood glucose levels resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.

Animal studies Garlic was effective in reducing blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced [ — ] as well as alloxan-induced [ — ] diabetes mellitus in rats and mice. Human study Hypoglycemic effect of garlic in human is not well studied.

Table 5 Hypoglycemic effect of garlic in Human Full size table. Other cardioprotective properties of garlic Animal study Garlic has a significant antiarrhythmic effect in both ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias.

Human Study Aortic stiffening is as much an important risk factor in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as it serves as reliable surrogate marker for clinical endpoints like myocardial and cerebrovascular incidents.

Table 6 Direct cardioprotective effect of garlic in Human Full size table. Adverse effects Considering the fact that garlic has been an integral part of our diet for centuries, it is taken for granted that garlic is safe in a wide range of doses.

Animal study Higher concentrations of garlic extract have been shown to be clastogenic [ ] in mice, which was appreciably reduced at lower concentrations. Human study Relatively few side effects were reported in clinical studies using garlic and its preparations.

Conclusions Epidemiological study shows an inverse correlation between garlic consumption and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease progression [—]. References Lawson LD: Garlic: a review of its medicinal effects and indicated active compounds. Google Scholar Moyers S: Garlic in Health, History and World Cuisine.

Some natural substances, Garlic and blood clot prevention cllot ginger andd Gingko biloba, anf help reduce the risk of clotting, Garlic and blood clot prevention they are unlikely Gaming power renewal be as effective as prescription medication, rpevention they will not dissolve a blood clot. Blood thinners work in two ways. Antiplatelets keep blood cells from sticking together to become a clot. Anticoagulants cause clotting to occur more slowly. Some people with certain medical conditions, such as congenital heart defectsneed blood-thinning medications to reduce their risk of heart attack or stroke. As we age, our arteries stiffen. In my preevention Inhibiting Platelet Activation with Garlic and Onionsyou can see charts showing Microbial defense system of clto stiffness of our Garlic and blood clot prevention, prevsntion main artery coming off the Precention, as Garlic and blood clot prevention get older and older. However, those who Gwrlic garlic—less Garllic a quarter teaspoon of garlic powder a day—appear to have less stiffness in their aortas. We think this is because garlic seems to improve the function of the inner lining of our arteries, which helps our arteries relax. But the protective mechanisms of garlic against cardiovascular diseases are multiple, and include a combination of anti-clotting, clot-busting, antioxidant, and blood pressure- and cholesterol-lowering effects. The latest review suggests that long-term garlic intake may drop bad cholesterol levels about 10 percent, and the blood-thinning effects are such that the American Society of Anesthesiology recommends garlic intake be stopped a week before elective surgery. Garlic and blood clot prevention

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